About the origin of the Arian nation, their first creation and their coming to Sindh have different versions. One group of scholars says that originally they came from Caucasus, from where they migrated to Persia, Central Asia, then to Sindh and India. Some of them went to Europe via Romania. There is a second version which holds that they originally belonged to the area of the Ural Mountains from where, through Central Asia, they came to Sindh, India, Persia and Europe. There is a third version also, that originally they belonged to north Siberia's Maru mountains, from where they migrated by different routes to Sindh, India, Europe and Persia.
Leaving alone these probabilities I will only deal with their coming to Sindh. Though several Indian historians are of the option that about ten thousand years ago, they came to Sindh from where they went to Persia, Iraq, Syria, Egypt and Arabia. Here they established their own habitats. Some of the historians go to the extent to say that even Ka'aba, of Mecca, was originally Shiv's temple. In its corner 'Hajre-Aswad' (Black Stone) was Shiv's Lingum. Going round the Ka'aba had also originated in those ancient times. Ahram was also originated from the Hindu Saniasies. Even the very name of Arabia has come from tile Sanskrit name "Horse", which meant that Arabia was the country of horses. It is written in "Manusumart" that one Brahman Shanker Jatishake was the first person who went to Arabia and was called by the name of Shaikh. As in Bharat, there is an honor to be a Brahman, so in Arabia the word "Shaikh" acquired social prestige. It is said that about 500 years ago, before the Prophet, Zahin-bin-Tai, a poet lived in Arabia. Whose poetry has been found in Constantinople's Museum. He has praised Krishna Maharaj.
It is said that during the days of Vikramajit, Arian Brahmans, used to go to Arabia for the preaching of the (religion) Vedic Dharam. One Arab poet, Noman-Bin-Adam, has written the poem in praise of Raja Vikramajit, which is said to be lying in Hamida Library, in Jerusalem. At present the Arabs do not believe in the theory of transmigration of the soul, but in the book named "Al-Minal Wal-Nahal, it is written that in ancient times the Arabs believed in the theory of Trans-migration, which was originally an Arian theory. In those days amongst the Arabs, Shiv's worship was prevalent. Umer Bin-Hasham-Bin-Haris, it is said, was originally a worshipper of Shiv. In Jamia Azhar, Cairo, there is a professor who in his magazine, "Al-Hilal", composed a poem that contains the name of Umer-Bin-Hasham. It is said that this poem was previously called Abul-Hakam that meant "Father of Intelligence". Though in his time he was an important and learned poet of Mecca, the poetry composed by him mentions that the praise of Mahadev greatly promote human status, and Bharat is a center of religion, where man gets salvation. The poetry can be seen in Cairo's Al-Hilal magazine, in its March 1932 issue.
Some Indian historians say that during the days of Hajj (Pilgrimage) wearing of Ahram (the two un-sewn pieces of cloth), and during Hajj even killing of lice was not allowed. This was a custom of the Aryans. Jews used to speak in the Tamil language. For verification see the book "Aria Varti" by Ganga Ram Samrat. From the recent archeological findings it has been proved that Darvadians, and Aryans inhabited Sindh, before Aryans, came afterwards. Though there is difference of opinion about their original time of coming to Sindh. From archeological findings it is said that Darvadians had their own civilization and citizenship. From Mohan-jo-Daro and other such findings this was the center of their civilization, which was about 1700 years before Christ. When the Aryans drove them out, the Darvadians became weak and served as untouchables and slaves and some of them were killed or driven out to South India. The Aryans, in tile beginning were less civilized and nomads and were fighting people. But when they found the cities of the Darvadians and came in contact with their civilization then, with mixture of the older civilization, they established their own civilization.
Thus the Arian civilization was a mixture of both civilizations. The Dravadian civilization was similar to Egypt, Summair, and Babul in its age as that of Sindh, with the difference in time. Several similarities are found. After research, it can be established as to which civilization was earlier. Mohan-Jo-Daro's findings are not yet complete, so it is possible that that the future may give such clues which may provide further and authentic information on the subject.
Spirits dominated animist and un-animist things. The belief was common between Darvadians and Aryans. A research of ancient Egypt's Summair's, Babul's and Sindh's beliefs and religious ideas shows that trees, animals, stars and zodiacs and spirits were common to both. The sky, sun, moon, planets, zodiacs, mountains, rivers, earth, fire and air had their spirits with different names. These are found from a study of their mythology. In view of that, if I narrate tile story of Trinity, it will not be out of place. We will narrate the Story on the basis of Puran-Shaster. It is said that Trinity existed in different form in Greece, Rome, Egypt, Summair, Fragia and Babylon. As Trinity is more or less the expression of different powers, therefore, I will narrate here the theory of Trinity as it was in India, which is the cradle of one of the ancient religions of the world. On the basis of that theory, the story can be narrated as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiv were the original gods of Indian religion:
1) Brahma was considered the creator of the universe and administrator. Brahmanism, its original name came from the belief in the name of Brahma. In the beginning human knowledge had not progressed much, therefore, God was considered equivalent to man's concept and God was supposed to be with a wife, whose name was Saraswati. in the beginning, Brahma worshippers performed certain rites and recitation of certain names and made sacrifices. In comparison to the above-mentioned customs, ethical questions and social principles then had no importance. Tile followers of Brahma were mostly limited to scholars who considered the religion pure and gave it importance. But it was incapable of being understood by the common man. Its influence spread over Sindhi and influenced India's beliefs to a great extent. Knowledge of that belief required understanding arid performance of certain religious rites and recitation of certain names, mantras (incantations) and understanding of tile meaning and purpose of sacrifices. By these methods, Devtas (Gods) were to be pleased and peace of this world and tile other securities could only be found by these methods. It was believed that in this way man reached the stage of being a Devta and by acquiring these qualities lie reached the ability by which not only the present life but life after death could also be in his control. In things of this world man automatically became that complete being who could acquire anything he desire. Through such spiritual attainments he could control things according to his wishes.
Through these he could acquire knowledge of the universe and control its powers. If once he could control these he could get anything according to his wishes. And if he could not get these by his recitations or religious performances, then it was his defeat or shortcomings and not the defeat of above-mentioned things. It was believed that through these performances, even God could be molded according to man's wishes. During the Rigved period, Vedic Dharm is said to have had such powers in it. If these were properly performed, God's concept could have remained very high. But strict observation to certain formulas, incarnations, recitations and sacrifices reduce religious belief. So God's honor and knowledge was not increased but prayers were prominence. Shah Latif present poem seems to be under the influence of that idea:
His book 'Sin Gita' is considered in Vedantic philosophy the best book. According to the belief of this Hindu sect, God, in difficult conditions comes in the form of man and performs good deeds for the salvation of those in difficulties
In Shah Latif's poetry, Leela Chanesar's and Kamod's devotion, obedience and self annihilation are properly explained, whose glimpse he seems to have acquired from Miran Bai's poetry.
SUR LEELA CHANESAR:
"The Lord of the Kingdom came for this purpose as a vagrant Fakir." These Sufis have spoken about the eternal beauty, which changes its forms in such a way that wherever they turn their head, they have found the expression of God. They saw that eternal object can be seen in a small insect, so it can also take the form of Alexander The Great. From that point of view the Sindhi Dervishes had to deal with various kinds of people. On tile one hand they had to deal with the learned and the civilized men, and on the other hand they had to deal with tile dwellers of forests and worshippers of animals and trees.
In order to enhance unity behind diversity, Prophets spoke of unity or monism on the one hand and the worship of animals on the other. It showed how the origin and progress of religion began. In this manner the religious reformers dealt with the subject instead of rejecting the old and replacing it with the new, as in the Qura'an it is said that wherever you look you will find the secret of God.
Islam on the one hand, speaks about unity behind diverse beliefs. And on the other hand ordains the people to round the old Temple, Ka'aba, and of running between the two mountains of 'Safa' and 'Marwa'. Sacrificing animals and kissing the black stone which is fixed in the corner of Ka'aba. asking the followers to wear the Sanyasi dress and shave their heads and throw stones at certain idols. and go to the shrines of certain Saints and considering the spirits of those saints as inhabiting graves and asking their help in cases of difficulties and allowing the recitation of certain "Wazifas", incantations of verses and apologizing before them for certain things.
There is a custom among the Muslims, and followers of other religions, that the dead may be buried and Qur'anic verses be recited, and after three, seven, eleven, twenty-one and forty days or twelve months, people are to be fed. All this is practiced due to the belief that the dead relative or friend will be pleased by these things which are given in their names. These old traditional customs and rites were retained, though these had originated from primitive beliefs.
Prophet Mohammed, who brought the message of universal peace and unity behind diversity and love of humanity, could have easily abolished the old customs, but lie did not do so. He did not want to displease the people by innovations only. Therefore both things continued. That is why even in the present age, when man has reached the moon. The followers of that great religion continue to spend lacs of rupees for performance certain customs and going to Mecca, Madina and other Shrines. Perform Hajj and visit the Shrines thinking that they will get salvation from their sins, and on the day of Judgement they will be benefited and go to Heaven. Our Sindhi Dervishes, from long ago, realized the real (inner) philosophical meaning behind all these customs, ceremonies and rites and said:
Sindh's and India's Yogis and Fakirs under their influence created a group of people through those methods, and solved the problems of the world. Shiv's Temple or his wife Durga (Kale Devi) were to be pleased by thousands of animals belief, was the conception that super-natural power of Gods or prevalent in every corner of the world in most of the nations, and all this was part of primitive religions. Behind this belief, the conception that super-natural power (of Gods or Devtas) was blood thirsty, vindictive and cruel, whom blood or flesh and the smell of burning fats could only please. All the misfortune and calamities, sorrows, troubles which fell upon human beings, were the result of Shiv's displeasure. Therefore, in order to please him, sacrifice was necessary. In the beginning every family or tribe or nation. in order to free themselves from the difficulties, used to go
God took two promises from Ibrahim, that lie himself along with his descendants will continue the custom of circumcision and that the second, of sacrificing of animals. In view of that his descendants will have prophets from time to time and the kingdom also will remain in their family. After that Ibrahim performed both ceremonies and ordered that both the ceremonies were necessary as the part of religion. If you analyze this statement of the Torah, you will find that Abraham's conception of God was that of personal one which had the qualities of man. In Torah, in the chapter of creation, m paragraphs twenty-six and twenty-seven, it is said that God created man in His form (in His own image).
Shiv Maharaj, it is said in the books, He used to ride on an ox. From this the ox became sacred and worthy of worship among the Darvadians. in Egypt, Summair, Babul and Sindh, the archeological findings show such beliefs were also common here. in Dravadian civilization findings it is found that Sehwan (Shiv wahan) had Shiv's monuments. It is said the Munchher Lake was originally named the Mansurwar Lake, which continues to remain in the Himalayas. Round about Sehwan there are several places where Shiv's fairs were held. Gaji Shah, Luki, Ameer Pir and Jhimpir are some of the names of places of worship shrines. At Qalandar Shahbaz Mausoleum, there are bells equivalent to the bells of Shiv's temples; at Qalandar Fakir's tomb shaving of the heads and beards, in the mornings and evenings, are performed; fairs, dhamal and dances all these show the signs of Shiv customs. Inside the mausoleum of Qalandar Shahbaz, there is a stone that is called by the name of honey and butter. Originally it was lingum and Uni. Smoking of charus (Hashish, marijuana) and drinking of hashish is carried on as a religious ritual and most of. the Fakirs remain bachelors. All these ceremonial customs point to Shiv's religions remnants.
In Sindh there are several places where lingum used to be kept and worshipped. I have pointed the above customs of the Aryans and their predecessor's religion. Below I will point out the progressive religious ideas.
The Vedanta is a theory based on the teachings of Vedas and it was used to interpret the meanings of the UPANESHADS. The Brahmans, who were the authorized interpreters of religious books, categorized the following six interpretations of Vedic Dharam:
In Vedanta, the monist theory of the universe has been evolved and kept on the philosophical level of interpretation. The first interpreter of the Vedantic philosophy, who placed it in proper order, was "Pundit Badnyana". As his book was full of science and mystical meanings, therefore like other Sutra books, several interpretations of it were written. Among these Pundit Sankara's interpretation is considered of great importance. Pundit Badnyana lived in 800 A.D. Shankar's; Brimsutra's interpretation contains a lot of things, wherein he has supported Pundit Badnyana 'S main principles. Modern Bharat's learned Pundits, except those who were influenced by European thought, were mostly supporters of Vedanta's interpretation. Out of these three parts believes in Sankara and Sutra's interpretation. The remaining are the followers of other interpretations. The philosophy of Vedanta is based on ancient Upunshad's principles. According to this man's Atima (soul) has similarity with God, who keeps the position of universal spirit, which is eternal, unlimited and permanent. Its power is in control of tile entire universe. God (universal spirit) cannot be divided into parts, changed or finished. God (Brahma) was whole and in distributable. Without the existence of God, there was no other existence. He was one and there was no other but Him. (La Ilaha Illallah). According to Sankara's interpretation Vedanta was without duality. From the basic concept of this philosophy, those in this world there are different conceptions in various things of separate spirits. But in the Vedas, there were certain things in existence, in which the theory of transmigration (Awa Gawan) of the soul was accepted; and tile reward and punishment principles were acceptable as well as the separate personal spirit 5 existence was also accepted. These things were contradictory and different things. These were the result of ignorance and unconsciousness of tile material reality as dynamics of life on which existed the life of every man. On account of such hypothetical assumptions the spirit is considered to be separate from the body. Psychological and outward influences were against this. The existing universe was thought to be only Maya (Illusion) and all the expression of the creation was a fraud or an illusion. It was thought that as you go near to illusion, it will disappear. Therefore, you can only know it after proper knowledge. Its other example is like a dream, where you can see things as if they are near, hut after awakening these disappear that in universe there is only one thing which is above misconception, that is Atima (Rooh, soul). Its proof was not necessary. Its existence was its own proof. Therefore you cannot deny it. Its denial is reason for its existence. A thing that does not exist, you cannot deny. Rooh is spirit, which is beyond time, space and causation. Therefore its existence cannot be separated from God. The existence of God is its existence. Our existence cannot be separate from God. We have simply to peep in and know ourselves.
All these things have emanated from Vedanta. Through self-realization alone you can know the secret of diversity. Maya's ignorance, how that appears, from where it came.
That remains a secret. Vedanta philosophy does not look on it. According to it, when ignorance disappeared then know-ledge appeared and the secret will ~e known and that illusion, misconception, will disappear and Rooh (spirit) will be known to the universal spirit. World's diversity and its attribute conception will disappear, as Sankara believes in the Upanishad's authority, therefore he was compelled to follow the point of view of prayers and recitations. At the same time the proposes to place Vehdaniat in two forms:
I am not thinking of explaining that minutely Vedanta's several interpretations. But it is sufficient to say that in Hindu religion, Vedanta is the higher explanation, customs, recitations and idol worship became prominent. So in order to renew and reform Vedanta, Mahatma Buddha on the scene.
MAHATMA BUDDHA'S RELIGION OR BUDDHISM
This religion, though it is based on Veda's interpretation, its foundation has been built on intellectual progress and performance of good deeds. That is, on human morality in which prayers and customs have not been given importance, but more emphasis was given on clear thinking. He freed the people from Jati System (Caste higher and lower) and persuaded people to train themselves on the basis of good conduct.
1. RIGHT THINKING:
Right thinking is that which is free from ignorance and illusion, that is, A CONSCIOUS ACCEPTANCE OF REALITY. Its intuitive urge can be love. Love is an unlimited desire, which can lead a person in the right direction.
2. HIGHER PURPOSE:
Right thinking can be fixed on the basis of love. An upright life can be a guide for a higher purpose in life.
3. RIGHT DISCUSSION:
Right discussion can only be based on truth, which should be open and sincere. Its basis should be kept on toleration, according to which, along with one's own view, the views of an opponent should be given respect. You cannot solve the problems of one sided discussion or views.
4. RIGHT DEEDS:
Right deed is the other name of good deed, and good deed is that which brings peace and unity among mankind. Does not lead to hatred. It depends on the principle of good to others and in it there is no selfishness. These deeds which are performed for the interest of the common people, and in which personal and selfish deeds are not given any place, are deeds which become the cause of one's country and community and in turn become the cause of human salvation.
5. RIGHT LIVING:
Right living can be called that kind of living which is free from the exploitation of others for selfish interest. In this kind of living no pressure or force is used. This life should not be by theft or violence. This should not be based on flesh and fish. That living should be based on grain or fruit got from earth, or milk or butter from the cattle. That living should not be through fraud or anti-social methods, or any act which is un-social.
6. RIGHT STRUGGLE:
Life is dependent on struggle and movement, but one has to see the purposes of the struggle. Work for the good of others, service of human beings, common benefit, and country's welfare and common man's welfare can be called a right struggle. But selfishness, personal benefit and class interest and work for the limited interest of one's tribe or group cannot be called a right struggle.
Right-mindedness is that which leads one to coexistence and co-operation and which leads one's life in the right direction. Every moment is to be considered precious. and it is to be kept free from selfish desires and is to be utilized for the benefit of mankind. One must consider oneself part of one's country, nation and humanity. One has to keep aloof from selfishness and vanity. One has to merge into the whole.
8. RIGHT SACRIFICE:
Right sacrifice can be reached only when one has killed selfish desires. One who becomes a slave of slaves of humanity, should crush with tolerance all bad desires. Shah Latif seems to have narrated this poem under this influence:
Bedil Sam has explained the same idea as under:
Buddhists on one side tried to improve morality and good deeds of man
and preached the message of love and peace. On the other hand, they tried
to give right education and purpose of Vedanta. Afterwards, this religion
produced the following two big sects:
Hinayanum means smaller method for expression. Buddhism preaches men the message of NIRVAN PAD, the source of salvation. They say that the Atima (spirit) of men is involved in the circle of deeds; on account of which sorrows, diseases, hunger and such other troubles have surrounded the people. Therefore the ultimate object of the life should be directed towards salvation of the soul, from the circle of reward and punishment. and salvation should be the ultimate object of life; and that salvation can be achieved through right 'thinking, right doing and after that alone the Atima (spirit) will merge with' its Origin (God and thus acquire the stage of permanent pleasure.
Mahayaum is the greater method for expression. The followers of this group or sect, interpreted their teachings 'on the following three principles:
After sometime when Buddhism started idol worship and celibacy as one of their creeds, they created vested interest with reaction. So, in reaction people went back to Brahmanism. And Brahmans with their new interpretation to the Vedic Dharm in India, most of the Buddhist centers came under the control of Brahmans. Raja Dahir came from a Brahman center, but in his days every corner of Sindh was filled with the followers of Buddhism. His own brother turned to Buddhism and became Bikshu (Buddhist monk). Right up to the immigration of Muslims, Buddhists continued to remain in Sindh. Difference between Brahmanism and Buddhism was like Judaism and Christianity. The first group emphasized on physical purity and prayers and recitation of certain words, and the other put emphasis on purity of senses and character - or personal morality in word and deed.
At the time of the immigration of Muslims into Sindh, the following remnants of Buddhist influence, in degenerated form, were found among the lower strata of the people. A group of persons who mostly depended upon begging, roamed as mendicants from place to place, and took consolation from intoxication.
Some such Muslim devotees started their Ashrams or centers, to reform the morals of the people and give spiritual training. But later, after their demise, their descendants turned these to their monitory advantage, as vested interest, using their graves as Shrines where people gave offerings in cash and kind as it was said that by such offerings their desires would be fulfilled. Thus these Shrines became sources of income.
Buddha's Bikshus spread the belief in evanescence of material things and as such every minute of life to be devoted in doing good deeds, so that in the next life (to come) lie would acquire a better incarnation. As Muslims did not believe in the concept of incarnation, treated this world like the shade of' a tree and a future life's promise, passed this life without doing anything. Therefore the good deeds and passage of life lost its glamour.
Prayers and recitation on certain words took importance over right thinking and right deeds, so the latter lost importance and people fell in the trap of Mullahs and Pirs. They thought that prayers and recitations would mold God's. As my purpose has not been to give a detail of Buddha Dharm teachings, but only to show that this universal religion also had left its influence on the people of Sindh, though in their turn they had become Muslims. If you make a psycho-social or socio-philosophical research on the lives and teachings of Muslim Dervishes of Sindh, like Shah Inayat, shah Latif, Sachal Sarmast and other Sufis of Sindh, you will find that they acquired a lot from the early teachings of Buddhism. For instance in Shah Latif's poetry "Sur Rip" "Khahori" "Brawo Sindhi" "Ramkali" and "Pirbhati", you can find philosophical influences of the teachings of Buddhism.
SUR BRAWO SINDHI: (In memory of the beloved)
The religions, which had influenced Sindh, among those, as I have mentioned before, were animist and inanimist religions, which had considerable influence. Among these, Trinity, Vedic Dharm, Buddha Dharm, were mentioned before. Now I will give a few facts about the third religion, Jainism, which also had great influence on the Sindhi people. The founder of this religion was Mahatma Mahavir, who was said to be the last prophet of Jainism. About 23 prophets had passed before him. Mahatma Mahavir's time of preaching was more or less the same, that is Mahatma Buddha's period of 500 B.C. Prophet Mahatma Mahavir was born in Kum-gram (village) at a distance of 37 miles on the north of Patna. Like Mahatma Buddha, he was also the son of a Raja. When he became 30 years old both of his parents died. He passed 11 years in prayers and became a recluse. Began walking naked. After he got illumination he remained alive for 42 years. He died at the age of 72 years. He got the Nirvanpad (salvation), at the village of Para. He died before Gotham Buddha. It was 480 B.C. His followers were divided into two sects:
His followers lay more emphasis on renegation. Therefore, many of the books were lost. But those that remained were written in Mugadi language, which were afterwards translated in Jain Maharashtri language. At present a sufficient number of these books are available in Jainism. Their principles were divided into two sects:
ii) Second one gave attention towards the life which was lived in good deeds. The Jain philosophy was based on findings of reality of life and supernatural powers and psychology. Their deeds were on the basis of Buddha Dharm, improvement of character and life of preparation for the renegated workers. The second group treated the methods for good conduct of life. For instance when one was in practical. life, in order to free himself from mistakes, for him a certain code of life is necessary. The third group was concerned in finding how best a perfect life could be lived, that was its code of life. The fourth group tried to live with the best conduct of life.
In their swembras, Sadhu used to wear white dress and discussed the principles of Sankhia, Yoga and considered their own opinions f~ be right. They thought the spirit of man after passing through many incarnation, in right direction, will get salvation through incarnations.
They, however, had some different methods for salvation. They were of the same opinion about the philosophical knowledge of mankind. According to which they had accepted the different forms and spirits of men changed into different forms as was the case of physical body. In the same manner the spirits also went on changing their form and knowledge. As nothing was permanent on this earth, so the spirits (Atimas), or God's conception, was also not always the same. They were also capable of changing and did not believe in permanency of anything. As both of them, Buddha and Jain, had created groups of selfless workers, therefore to the Western intellectuals teachings of Buddha and Jain were considered the same, which was not a fact. Jain Dharam was eternal and without beginning and without an end. Upanishads said that universe existence was without a beginning and end and change. As against this Buddhist said that existence itself was not permanent or unchangeable. But the Atima (spirit) itself after passing through various stages and incarnations, would ultimately be annihilated. Shah Latif, on account of the influence of this thought said:
They considered the existence theory not fixed. Their meaning from the existence of things was permanent in the so-called method of knowledge, but their qualifications and conditions were changeable and capable of disappearance. As the earth is durable, but its qualities and forms are changeable. The earth can remain for a longer period but things created from earth like bricks, dishes, color and forms were changeable and perishable. From the Brahman point of view, the existence of any being was part of universal existence. But according to Jain belief, all these were changeable.
Jain's second sect was Degambras who used to live and walk naked and were later known as Naga Sadhus". Their main principles were as under:
There is a chain of mountains between Mardan and Malakand Port. In between these there are two places on high altitude known as Takht-e-Bai and Fort Facing these two spots goes a path along the chain of mountains called "BUDDHIST PATH". The Buddhist monks went on foot on this path-crossing Swat and to Dir, over the River Swat. Local folklore among the regional Pathans, had it (during 1953.55) that a ferocious (savage) tribe lived in that area, which attacked any passing stranger. These Buddhist monks, principled in non-violence (AHINSA) kept no weapons. But when attacked on this high mountain path, by those savages, some were killed. Later the monks defended themselves with their bare hands, having acquired the noble art of self-defense: JUDO-KARATE. Informed opinion has it that this was the origin of the art of Judo-Karate, begun by the Buddhist monks out of necessity of self-defense, without weapons.
BEDIL FAKIR of Sindh also said:
This religion is a branch of Arian Dharam, whom Mahatma Zarthusht, on the basis of Vedas and Aresta, placed before the people of Iran. Sindh and Iran had long-standing connection with each other. After Darvadians, Arian influence came to both the countries. Persians, for a long time, had control over Sindh. From that time the Zarthushti beliefs left their influence in Sindh.
There were several places where fire (worship) temples were constructed. Sun worship was the main belief of Zoroastrianism. Signs of these can be found from various places of Sindh. Bhambhore, Bhimpura was the city constructed in honor of the Sun God. A foundation of this religion was based on the supremacy of the Sun.
rent and secret things were kept in view. Each thing was seen from two points of view. On one side there was light and on the other there was darkness, On one side there was truth and on the second disbelief, there was matter and on other side there was spirit. From these points of view they looked upon the supernatural power from two attributes. One named Aharmaz and the other Aharmun. One was considered leading towards righteousness and the other towards disbelief. In this philosophy, the contradictions were shown in such a manner that several other religions took lessons from this teaching. Hindu Sankhia teachings interpretation are on the same basis. Muslims tried to place the "Wahadat-ul-Shahood" on these lines. Vehdaniat, Wahdat-ul-Wajood philosophy was not only prayers, recitation of certain verses for reward and punishment, paradise and hell, appearance and secret, there were created such contradictions that this ideology tried to remove tile belief in deeds. Aristotle tried to get benefit from the teachings of Zoroastrianism. But Arabs also tried to get benefit from these teachings. This philosophy took the shape of duality, under which some things in the world are considered higher and some lower. Love was placed opposite to hatred. Light separated from darkness. Sindh, before the spread of this philosophy of Duality was dominated by the philosophy of Wahdaniat or monism. But during these days of Khwaja Ghulam Ahmed Sarhindi, in the name of Shariat-Islami, Muslim supremacy was shown, which became the cause of hatred between Hindus and Muslims. It left its influence, during the days of Mullah Hashim Thatvi in which, under the leadership of Pir Sarhindi, in outward appearance Muslim laws and show of simplicity and religiosity increased. On account of which, during the days of Kalhoras, Sufis of Sindh were compelled to say:
"This and that, life and death, beloved and lover, enemy and friend are all one."
In various religions the outward law speakers of religions could not understand; and hatred and duality replaced religions based on love and unity. Thus religion was divided into three sects - Mazdahic, Muthra and Manni. The interpretation of their teachings, the contradictions will be explained below:
The founder of this sect was Mazdahic, the son of Bamirah from Somania province. He was born in 500 A.C. He took power in the days of Sassani Emperor, Kuwad, who came into power in 488 A.C. He was the supporter of this sect. But as from the past centuries, Zoroastrianism was the religion of the Government of Iran, religious mobids of Zoroastrianism. had created vested interests in their religion. Therefore, in spite of the support of the Emperor, bureaucracy and religious heads created opposition against this sect, because their (Mazdahic') beliefs were against the interests of these upper classes, with the result that they removed the emperor, Kuwad, and brought in his place 'jainshib' and placed the reigns of. government in his hands, and thus a quarrel started between these two groups. In that Mazdahic himself was killed and Prince Khusro came to the throne. The basic principles of this sect were as under:
This sect was also a branch of Zarthushti (Zoroastrian) religion. The word "Muthra" is derived from Mahar, which means Sun. In many of the ancient religions, sun was considered a great God and a powerful Devta. In Egypt, Ossirus was considered God of Sun, which was the first God of their trinity. In Bablian, (Babylonian) Bail was the representative of Sun. Therefore, the Babylonian civilization's entire basis was on the Solar System and Astronomy. Iran was near to Babul and for some time was under its influence. Therefore there also Shams or Mahar were considered main God and worshipped. On our side of Sindh and Hind, the Sun was presented in the form of Birma. The sun creates light and heat. Light represents wisdom, righteousness and truth. Against it darkness stands for ignorance and untruth. These are Ahramani attributes, which are called Satanic. Heat is an incentive to life. if there was no heat, then no man, animal or vegetable could be created. Therefore the entire creation and continuation of it depends upon the sun. The Parsi religion's first prophet, Mahatma Zarthushtra, in his book Zindavista, Muthra and Aharmaz had been given the same status. Ancient Iranian Emperors, Darius, son of Histapur 485 B.C. and Astagurgus 358 B.C., on their tombs Aharmaz and Muthra are both shown. In ancient days the lion was considered a representative animal of the Sun. Even in our times the Iranian flag shows Lion and Sun's emblem as sign of Aharmaz and Muthra, which represent the old tradition. From archeological findings, one picture has been found in which a lion is killing an ox, symbolizing the Lion as the Sun and Ox as the Earth. This means that the sun is dominant over the earth, and when sun sets, its rays over tile earth enables animals and vegetables to be created. These views originally were taken from Egypt and Babul. The Iranians and Sindhis subsequently adopted these. Muthra sect slowly went to Greece and Rome where it became the part of their religion and Christianity adopted these several things. Christianity from Muthraism adopted God, Sun and Sheep as symbols. Most of the religions have taken several things from each other. With the evolutionary changes of society and advance of their civilization and religion, later generations took over such things from each other. From research on the subject it will be found that Sindhi civilization and religion had adopted many things from Muthraism.
In Iran's main religion of Zarthushtra, the fourth sect was Monism. This represented the mystic aspect of the Iranian religion. It started during the third century A.C. The name of its founder was "Methanuse", which was changed to the name of "Moni". It is said that lie was born by 216 A.C. in the city of Babul. From the beginning he held the concept that he used to get intuitions from God. After reaching maturity, he went to Egypt and there he acquired the mystic aspect of the Egyptian religion. After that he came to Palestine and also acquired some secrets of Christianity. Later he returned to Iran where Emperor Shah Pur, son of Ardeshir's brother, on account of this royal patronage, lie came to middle Asia, Sindh and Middle India and then went on to China. Here he learnt the spiritual secrets of the religion prevailing there. On account of his experiences and acquirements, he came to the conclusion that beyond all the religions there was the basic unity of all the religions. His religion, like other religions, was based on the philosophy and principles of "Unity behind Diversity". His religion insisted on the mystic side of the religions and philosophical interpretation of the entire creation. He gave less importance to
prayers, recitation of certain formulas and religious customs. His teachings were based on the Zarthusht, religion of duality, where right and wrong, light and darkness played an important role. He tried to explain all religious formulas on the basis of reason. But he was of the opinion that certain things which could not be solved through wisdom, these could get through intuition, on account of which he used to solve the problems. He used to say originally light and dark-ness were one, but were not mixed up. Light's influence was unlimited and darkness was limited. The ruler of the kingdom of light was God, whose control was on all the things. The ruler of darkness was Satan who was not permanent, but had some powers through which he could control certain things. In the beginning, he spread darkness in the world and began to interfere in the domain of the God of light. But when he
came face to face with the God of light, he could not stand the refulgence of the sun. So he started hatred against righteousness. God created prophets and reformers who used to curb his teachings. Prophet Moni, after his knowledge to explain the unity behind the religions of Zarthusht, Gothum Buddha and Jesus Christ used to say that not only among the men but also among animals, trees, and inanimate things, God's spirit prevailed and through that the world was maintained. So the world was going on with the combination of both. He used to say that when heavenly light would go to the 'sky for over thousand years and half the struggle between right and wrong will continue.
Ultimately the right will prevail. He used to say in the beginning that man, on account of animal influence, was under the domain of Satan. Satan had misled the ancestors of mankind "Adam and Eve". After that, from time to time, God sent prophets for the improvement of mankind. His sayings were not liked by Zarthushti vested interests. On their instigation the Emperor Bahram got him killed. His teachings had influence in the East and the West for a long time, but on account of fear of outside religious influence, it was kept secret. His books could not be saved from onslaughts of other religious heads. It is said that his workers were divided into various groups, who tried to separate their secrets from outward teachings of religions. The leader of all secrets was he himself. He did not propagate the idea of prayers or recitation of certain words or facts or customs. The special quality of his method was that his followers should free themselves from certain things. So they tried to put emphasis on right thinking and eating and freed themselves from wrong doings and did good deeds for the good of humanity. The thing, which he emphasized most, was that his followers should keep free from wrong thinking and desires. They mostly kept free from the flesh food and wrong sexual indulgence. Their main workers did not eat fish or flesh. Some of them did not even pick fruits and vegetables from the trees, but depended upon the fruits and vegetables acquired by others. Among them, the advanced men used to take food once a day and dress once a year and keep free from idol worship and remained celibates. Those persons used to fast on Monday. Their prayers did not ask God for forgiveness of sins or asked for benefit. According to their belief, sins could not be forgiven, except by keeping them away from things, which were sinful. The original idea was not the committing of sin or to bring your mind to that extent, rather you would not even wish for things, which were prohibited. They classified persons in three categories:
This religion is based on the principles issued by the great grand father of all Semitic prophets i.e. Hazrat Ibrahim. It is said that Ibrahim had two sons, one was Hazrat Ismail and the other Hazrat Ishaque. From Ismail Prophet Mohammed brought Islamic teachings, and from Ishaque's progeny was one son named Jacob, whose second name was Israel, and all the prophets who came after him were called Banu Israel. Among them the main Prophets were Moses, David and Jesus. They are called master of books. Moses was the founder of Torah book, and on which the Jews based their religion. Hazrat Dawood spread his teachings through the book "Zaboor", and the third was Jesus Christ who spread his message through "Injeel" (New Testament). Moses was the founder of Judaism. The name of this religion was based on the name of God, whom they called 'Jahwa'. He (Moses) preached his message through "Torah" whose interpretation was done through "Talmud". The Jews called themselves "the selected nation". They left the worship of other Gods and followed 'Jahwa' (God). Like Muslims, they said there was no other God excepting Jahwa. Their grand father, Ibrahim, was born in Babylonia, which was in Chaldia country.* It is possible that their ancestors came from the Mediterranean area. The main points of Judaism are as
Then they came under the dominance of the Roman Empire. In their days they got some internal freedom. But the conservative policy of their "Rabbian" brought them into conflict with the people. Jesus Christ was born 60' years after the Israelis had been under Roman dominance. Israelis used to believe certain persons had the power to pray to God and intercede on their behalf to forgive their misdeeds and bring relief to them. But during the Roman days, Jesus Christ tried to reform them, but those Judaic Rabbis martyred him on the cross. Afterwards when one of the Roman Emperors (Constantine) became Christian, they were in difficulties and many of them migrated to Europe, Iran, North Africa and left politics and adopted a life of trade and other professions. That period was called by the name of dispersion. In that condition, they remained for nearly 1500 years, but during all that period they strictly 'adhered to their religion. But in view of remaining in different countries in different conditions, they brought several reforms in their religion. During the last 3 or 4 centuries, they produced well-known philosophers and doctors.
On the mount of Sinah, God had ordered the Jews, wherever the name of God will be taken, people will have faith in it. Their God's blessings will appear. Now they have started saying that' every good man, of whatever nation or religion was entitled to salvation. Today all Jews are not of the same opinion. There are many who still believe that Jews alone are entitled to salvation, and they are a selected nation of God. Several of their philosophers are of the opinion that everywhere God's blessings will be apparent. From that point of view they are not of the opinion that the division of nations should be made on the basis of religion. They say that bigotry in Canaan was not performed on account of their religious bigotry, but that there was political divisions behind their rivalry. Previously there was a belief among the Jews, that their religion was complete and the best and so propagation for conversion into it (Judaism) was necessary. But after translation, of their books in other languages, they consider it not necessary that they should utilize force in religion or prohibit people from going out from their religion. Now they have come to the conclusion that right education, right propaganda, good deeds 'and 'a good character is the right course for the teaching of their 'religion. At present they consider the ultimate object' of their religion is to reform their right education and performance of good deeds. At present the pivotal point of their belief is written in pathetic book in which God says: "You have to be pure because I, your God, am pure". It is equivalent to Muslim belief that:
"You should bring yourself according to attributes of God."
Now-days the learned group of Jews are of the opinion that it is better to perform good deeds, adopt a good character rather than perform prayers and follow the laws of religion. In the 18th chapter of the "Yahweh" book, it is written that "while reading My book and My orders, you should think more on the performance of good deeds". At one place it is said that forgiveness can only be achieved with returning of a theft, and .no sacrifice can be accepted without forgiveness of sins. These persons also believe that asking for the forgiveness of sins from God, it is better not to commit sins.
It is said by those Jews that in their golden age they used to prefer truth and sincerity more than prayers. Safety of mankind and following of the right persons and love of human beings were main principle of their teachings and traditions, and according to Prophet Jeremiah, acquiring the knowledge of God, meant the acquirement of truth and love was the key to religion. And the same Prophet says in another place, anybody who is exaggerating things, will not be entitled to God's blessings'. The real Jew held the belief that God is merciful and just and wants peace and safety. It is written in Talmud, that humility is better than sacrifices, and any man who does not learn from religion the lesson of love and mercy should not be considered a religious man.' He has not known the secret of the knowledge 'of God. Modern Jews say that the thinking is better provided it leads to the performance of good deeds. The 'purpose of reason and knowledge should be performed by doing good deeds and working for peace. God's right knowledge and pleasure can only be achieved through the performance of good deeds'. The true Jews say that acquirement of peace of mind and performance of good deeds,' is better than right faith. Religious laws should be utilized for the performance of good deeds and right character. According to them that man alone will be entitled to the blessings of God, who speaks the truth and does not malign anybody. They say that others will not like a thing, which you do not like. That is the fundamental point in their ethics. Rest of the things follows it. They say you should love your neighbor just as you love yourself. Your ethical ,duty is that you should consider all the human beings as creatures of God and treat them equally. It is said in Talmud that a Kafir (infidel) having a good character is better than a great-learned man among the Jews.
They say that everybody who does good deeds and has a good character though he may belong to any religion, is entitled to salvation and be in paradise. It is said by the learned among the Jews that for contradictions of belief, let the bigots fight among themselves, but this thing should be borne in mind that the man who performed good deeds and had a right character will not be wronged.
It is written in Talmud that in the interpretation of truth without right feeling, religion cannot have any meaning. It is also said in the Talmud that God's path and pleasure is hidden in the saying that people should love each other and remains in peace. Good deeds are those, which were not good in appearance, good deeds, can be those which can reform character and benefit human beings. It is said in the Talmud that sitting in seclusion with peace and performance of prayers do not bring so much blessings of God as the performance of good deeds. During the performance of duty any trouble or harm suffered brings more nearer to perfection. Duty is an achievement and God loves performance of duty. fear of God is less' beneficial than performance of duty for tile good of humanity'. It is said in "Zaboor" that the humble man will be the master of the land. It is also written in the Talmud that it is better to be humble rather than cruel. Anybody who is blamed should not reply and who is right and blamed unjustly will shine like the Sun. It "will be better to forgive rather, than take revenge. It is written that to keep good feelings it is better to love one's opponent. 'To have mercy on animals does not mean that you should save them from trouble, but that should be a, sign of man's being merciful, better character and perfectness. 'It is also written that without difference" of religion, tribe and nation, one should be helpful to others, during' illness or death. It is in the tradition's that when the Egyptian's were being drowned in the sea, when following Israelis, angels were feeling happy. Then God warned them that "My creatures are suffering and you are feeling happy?" It is said that one true "Rabbi" employed God not' to make anybody his enemy, neither to put enmity against anybody in his mind,. Just faithfulness and charity should be done to all men without distinction of caste and creed. Good deeds are pearls and fear of God is its thread. If the thread is broken, then pearls will scatter. Religious performance without character is a lifeless thing. Good deeds are the spirit of religion. That person will not be a true Muslim who does not know that Judaism is like the trunk of religion, Islam and Christianity are its, branches.
The founder of this religion was Jesus Christ, whom Muslims call Hazrat Issa. He was born in the province of "Gulail" from the body of "Mary", wife of "Joseph". They used to remain in the fishermen's .village near the seacoast. Jesus had a brother (John the Just) and two sisters. It was a custom in those days that important person was considered Cod's incarnation, therefore it was believed among the followers of Jesus, that Jesus was not the' son of Joseph, hut of God, in the shape of Rooh-ul-Qudus" (Holy Spirit) which was the source of his birth. Bibi Mariam was a virgin. Joseph was he betrothal. When Bibi Mariam became pregnant, in order to save her honor, Joseph proclaimed that he was married to Mary. In a similar manner the King of Macedonia, Philip, got Alexander the Great. In order to raise his prestige, it was proclaimed that Alexander was not the son of his father, but God was his real father. In the same manner the traditions among Hindus is that Sri-Krishna and Ram Chander were incarnation of God Vishnu, who were born of their mothers. These are the old traditions 'of ancient folklore. Hazrat Issa (Jesus) was from the Israeli Jewish tribe and 42nd descendant of Hazrat Ibrahim, the fourteenth descendant was Moses and the 28th descendant was David (Father of Solomon). After him (David) the Jews were conquered by the Babylonians, and kept in their slavery for fourteen generations. When the Persian Emperor Cyrus conquered Babul, he freed the Israelis and sent them back to their country where, in the village of Bait-ul-Hukum, in the Yahudia village, he was born. At that time the king of the Roman Empire was "Herodatus". After the birth of Jesus his parents migrated for some time to Egypt. After the death of Harodatus, who was against the Jews, they came back and stayed in the area of "Gulail" (Galilee). At that time Yuhuna Prophet John the Baptist) used to live in the desert and baptize people. Yuhuna used to wear the cloth spun from camel hair. Hazrat Jesus went to Yuhuna for baptism, when he (Yuhina) told him (Jesus) that "your status is greater than mine I am going to baptize you because you have come to me" After that Jesus remained in the wilderness for 40 days. There 'he passed through various stages of deep thought, prayers and experience. In those days Pales-tine was under the rule of the Roman Emperor, whose Governor used to remain in charge of that country, but for the local administration, the rule was entrusted to the hands of Jewish leaders. Jews, like the Brahmans, were staunch followers of the Mosaic laws. At that time Jerusalem was the center of the people of Banu-Israel. They used to run the government according to Mosaic laws. Their annual function was performed when Jews from all over the country came for visiting and sacrificing. Jesus, who had obtained spiritual powers visited Jerusalem twice. There he came to know that in the Mosaic laws, several unwanted innovations had been added, and without their reformation it was difficult to reform these people. Therefore he put all his emphasis on good deeds and greatness of God and His grace. In order to prove to the people that he was a Prophet, he performed certain miracles. After the performance of miracles, thousands of people from various corners of the country came for relief. Moses had said to his people that when Mosaic laws will become weak, then a prophet, Messih, will be born, who will then guide them and get them their lost glory. Therefore they started thinking to get their glory through him. They thought that he could turn their miserable condition and bring them their former glory. But they had not clearly understood when he used to tell them that if they followed him, they would be entitled to the Kingdom of Heaven. They thought that Kingdom of Heaven would be the same as the Kingdom of David and Solomon, but Jesus preached to them the need for Purity and self-control and not to crave for worldly powers. When be moved ~r preaching in the villages, thousands of people gathered round him. Then the 'spiritual leaders (Rabbis) told him' that if he was really the Promised Prophet, then he should get them the kingdom of the country as in the days of David and Solomon. While he moved about villages, his popularity increased day by day.
During his tour he expressed certain views which were against the law of Moses and Jewish traditions. For instance among the traditions, Saturday was considered good for prayer, when one had to remain at peace and free from the worldly affairs. Some people who were ill came to him for being cured. Some times he helped them and they got cured, and he worked on Saturdays also, which was considered by the Jews to be a day of rest, Then the religious leaders of Israel talked to him about strictly following the laws. He replied that the laws were not everything as those were made for the benefit and reformation 'of the people, so people were not to be bound down to follow the laws as these are meant for people, and not the people were created to follow them. These things were against the minority interests of the "Rabbis" and "Kahins". He told the people that human salvation did not depend on strictly following of the shariat (laws) but that grace of God was something also on account of such expression, they turned against him. Because that decreased the influence of custodians of Israeli laws, therefore their antagonism increased.
He refused to believe in the efficacy of sacrifice and salvation through prayers. Jesus said that God was not pleased on account of blood sacrifices. But he being merciful God, was pleased by good deeds and by giving relief or help to suffering humanity. Freesin and custodian of Israeli hierarchy did not like this view. Among the Jews it was an old belief that during the downfall of the Jews, Prophet Jesus would come, who would get them a kingdom and bring to them their lost glory. But he knew that he couldn't get them any kingdom through miracles. Because he knew that the real persons entitled to rule were the true men of character who were servants of God, and who on account of their good deeds would benefit their nation. Therefore, it was necessary that the character of people should be improved through good deeds and by service of humanity rather than by prayers and sacrifices, which God does not want or get, but men eat.
There was a belief of Jews, from ancient times, that after sometime a prophet would come to improve their conditions  and get them back the (independent) kingdom of the country and old glory. When, therefore, Israelis asked him who he was, he replied that he was the "Son of God" and the promised Prophet. But from this one misunderstanding grew; Israelis thought that if he was really a Prophet he would get them the kingdom through his miracles. But Jesus knew that for the government of the country those were only entitled who were men of character and did good deeds. But the Israelis had not acquired these qualities so the first need was that they should be prepared intellectually, morally, spiritually, and be of good characters. After that alone they would be entitled to rule. "But as they had lost their efficiency by putting emphasis on sacrifices and prayers and religious customs, therefore they had to be prepped first for the Kingdom of Heaven spiritually. When through that, they became men of' character and good deeds then, automatically they would be entrusted with power. But Jews, Freesin and Rabbis who occupied the local posts in the government and decided questions, in accordance with the Mosaic laws, could not understand these questions and they thought that by following Jesus; they would lose their power. So long as Jesus was touring the villages and preaching for spiritual progress to the common people, up to that time they tolerated him because he did not come in clash with their vested interests. But when in the annual gatherings in Jerusalem lacs of people met and he started preaching to the gathering and on account of his miracles men's belief in him was increasing, the custodians of synagogues got frightened and considered his teachings against their traditions. Jesus used to come into town during the day and sleep in the forests, on the mountain during the nights. Once he entered the town riding on a donkey, thousands of people came in his procession. It looked as if a king was, passing through the streets. This popularity of Jesus displeased Israeli custodians. Especially when they knew that this boy, came from the village of 'the fishermen, on the back of the sea, and he was the son of the Carpenter (Joseph) and he dared to work against their beliefs and- called himself the promised -prophet. Then they began -to conspire' against him in order to bring about a conflict between him and the Roman Government, in order to punish him. So they started asking him such questions so that he may come in conflict with the Roman Empire. Once they asked him as to whom they should give taxes. He asked them to bring him a coin on which the Roman Emperor's portrait was embossed. He replied to them "This coin belongs to the Roman Emperor. Therefore it should go back to him". Several times they tried to involve him in trouble with' the Government. Every time he got himself out of their intrigue. At last they called a conference of the Israeli leaders and raised the questions, where they decided that anyhow they should get him killed But by that' time his followers had increased to such an extent that it was practically impossible to arrest him during the daytime. And during the night he used to disappear in the wilderness. Where few of his followers were near about,' one' his followers named Yahudia, was bribed to show them his hiding place to enable them to get him arrested. One night when Jesus was sleeping alone in the forest, Yahudia, along with the Jewish police, went and got him arrested. When he was brought before the court of the Jewish leaders, they immediately proceeded with the case and sentenced him to death. But in those days the death sentence could not be executed without the permission of the Roman Governor. Therefore they, after convicting him, took him directly to the Governor. Jesus already knew what was going to happen and he was ready for it. Because he had reached the conclusion that salvation of the nation and the human being could only be achieved through his own sacrifice, whereas the Jews believed that the real 'prophet could only be he who may obtain for them the worldly kingdom. But he Jesus was of the opinion that nobody, no nation or people could achieve power without good deeds and moral character. Therefore he had preached to the people to train them on the spiritual basis to be good. But on account of centuries of wrong belief they could not understand. Further more, he considered the right deeds and good conduct were better than following of Jewish 'laws. On the other hand, the Jews had put all the emphasis on mere outward purity and following of Mosaic laws and the attainment of ruling power. Christ was a saintly person and the Jewish leaders were imbibed with the idea of sacrifice. Christ wanted to bring the people directly in contact with God, while the Jewish leaders wanted their own intercession necessary for salvation. The night on which they wanted to get Jesus arrested in that night's supper there were twelve (Havarians) present. Jesus told them that "One of you will spy and get me arrested, the rest will run away". So it happened that Yahudia got Jesus arrested and the council of the' Jews' sentenced him to the cross. Then they immediately brought him to the Roman Governor. The Governor saw that the judgement passed by the leaders was not correct, but due to political reasons he did not want to displease the Jewish leaders. He ordered the punishment of whip lashes and a crown of thorns to be worn by him as punishment Thinking by that punishment the Jews will give up the idea of punishment of Christ on the cross, But the Jew leaders were cruel, so they insisted that Christ should be crucified. Ultimately the Governor, in order to please the leaders, on their request ordered him to be hung on the cross: On one side there was the question of one man's preaching of new ideas and reforms, on the other, the Governor' considering the question, supported the Jewish leader's:
After hearing the Judgement, the leaders immediately dragged Christ towards the cross' and there,' along with two other" thieves, he was, killed by nailing his hands and feet. He was buried.' Next day when the 'Jews went to the grave they found that his body had disappeared. Then many Stories were told about his disappearance. Some said they had seen his body being carried away by angels towards the sky and he was alive. He will be sent again for salvation of humanity.
On this question they were divided in to two groups; one said that angels took his spirit to the skies and the other said that his body and spirit both had gone to the sky. Abraham's followers adopted several things from each other. First it is said that Ibrahim saw God and invited Him to his tent; after feeding Him, spoke with Him and God entered covenant with him, and he gave a sacrifice to please God. After that when the period of Moses came in Palestine, he on mount Sinah, spoke with God. Here he erected a sacrificial place and gave sacrifices. Similarly, in his time, Jesus sacrificed himself for the good of humanity and he became alive and went to Heaven. The same belief is held among, Muslims. Then he rose from the dead. God sent for Prophet Mohammed on the sky and spoke to him and showed him the skies. About this there are two versions. One group is the opinion the Prophet Mohammed was sent spiritually to Mairaj (Ascension), and the second group holds that he went to the sky bodily as well as with his spirit. Thus it will be seen that the following answers of Ibrahim believe that they believe in God, though they were named different but all of them believed in the personal conception and personal attributes of one God. If Ibrahim sent for God, in the tent and fed Him, that also is a concept of a personal God. Covenant of God, sacrifices and circumcision show the personal conception of God.' Hazrat Moses meeting with God in mount Sinah, and speaking to Him and ordering to fight and sometimes showed his displeasure and sometimes offering "Mano and Salwa" were also signs of a personal concept of God. It is said, in Torah that God said: "1 have created man after my own Image". This (Torah) saying shows the personal concept of God. Hazrat Jesus was created by God through incarnation of God inside his mother's womb and, called Jesus His son. After his physical death, he, came to life and was lifted above and after death, through, miracles, he brought certain dead persons to life (like Lazarus) and thereafter, some time they returned back to their own to: lead their usual life. It is said he also killed Dajjal (anti-Christ). All such things, were beyond human conception.
Prophet Mohammed's conception 9f going to Mairaj and speaking to God on seventh sky. About Jesus's life it is said that once in Galilee he, went on preaching and giving good news to the people and curing them from illnesses and difficulties. Several persons gathered behind him and he, in order to preach to them, mounted the hill and delivered a sermon. This sermon is called the "Sermon on the Mount". The main portions of his teachings are that God's blessings fail on the poor and pure hearted. They will get spiritual kingdom: "Blessed are those who are unhappy here". God will bless them in the future. Those who are blessed are going to be the custodian of earth. Blessed are those who on the path of righteousness remain hungry and thirsty. Ultimately they are going to be happy. God will bless those who are merciful. Blessed are those whose heart is pure. Because are those who bring peace to the people. Because, like children, they are doing God's work. Blessed are those who, on account of going on the right path, are made to suffer. So pleasures of the future will be a heritage of those who are travelling on the right path. "People malign you after hearing my views. They trouble you and malign you. Do not care for them. Because through that alone you are going to gain happiness. In future those will get a reward, who have suffered in the past. You are salt of the land. If you lose your selfishness, you will not be considered of any use. You can duly be thrown on the earth to be trod upon by the foot. You are the' light of the world. The city which is constructed on the hill cannot be hidden. A lamp after burning cannot be kept under shelter. Rather it is to be kept on a higher place so that the whole house should be illuminated. In the same manner your light should shine before them, so that after seeing your good deeds, people should praise your 'Father in the sky'. Do not consider that I have come to reject the writings of the Torah or of other prophets. I have come to reform and guide them. I am telling you the truth, so long the earth and sky are in existence up to that time the sayings of prophet will not be without fulfillment. Whoever follows righteousness will be considered great before God. You have "Freesin and Saduqeen" otherwise you will not get real happiness. You have been told - Do not kill anybody because you will be punished from the court. But I tell you that you should not show anger to any human being. Because that is also punishable. Whoever calls another mad is entitled to punishment. Whoever calls others ignorant will be entitled to punishment. When you go for sacrifice on the sacrificial ground and you remember that you have displeased some persons then you first go to get pardon from that person and then offer sacrifice. Then it will be accepted. You have to give an account of every paisa (money) which you owe others. You have been forbidden to commit rape on other men's wives, But I tell you that even to look other's wives with a sexual motive is equal to rape If your eye misleads you, take it out and throw it away so that your body may be saved from hell. You have been told that if you are displeased with your wife, divorce her. But my advice is to anybody who divorces his wife who has not committed any sin, will be like the person who had permitted his wife for rape. You have been told not to take a false oath, but my advice to you is no.. take an oath at all. Your saying should have such value that it should be equal to an oath. You have been told that in retaliation if somebody has broken your teeth or taken out an eye, you do the same. But my advice to you is that do not contest with your enemy. If somebody slaps you on the right cheek you give him you left cheek to slap. If anybody disgraces you by taking out your coat. Then you should hand over your shirt to him. If anybody takes you by force one mile, you go with him willingly on another mile also. If anybody borrows from you something do not deny. You have been told that you should love your neighbor. And whoever harms you ask for his forgiveness. Your Father is in the skies. You should be his true descendants. Because he raises the sun for good and also for bad. He sends rain from the skies for the benefit as well as for loss. If you love those who love you, what benefit will you get. If you salute your brothers, what good do you do? People of different countries do the same. Your Father who is in the sky, He is complete, you have to be complete like Him"
Shah Latif inspired by his spirit says:
All these Injeels along with certain letters from Havaries books are called the New Testament. It is said that Christ was uneducated. Once he was reading, then the Jews got confused and said, "You are illiterate, then how do you read?". He replied "I am reading through the Grace of my Father". He said that only those persons who loved me are the persons who followed my advice". He once said that "I have come from God and will go back to Him".
In the same manner Muslims say they came from God and will return to Him. Christ said that he has not brought a new religion, but he has come to reform previous religions because of the change in social conditions. All prophets, doctors, reeshis and Munnis have come from God, for the guidance and advice of human beings. But when afterwards their followers considered their messages and education, they finally discarded these due to material requirements of the time and tried to safeguard the vested interests, and then new prophets used to come. But followers of previous prophets, finding their monopoly breaking, opposed the new prophets. This process has persisted throughout human history. Power and monopoly have been man's weakness from savagery to civilization.
When the learned men of the Jews did not consider the changed conditions and tried to blindly follow the old customs and laws of Mosaic teachings. According to the requirements of time, Christ came to reform the religion, but the new leaders opposed him and got him crucified. From a research one will find that the laws of Moses and of Christ are branches of Abraham's religion. So I have come to the conclusion that the following questions were the main cause of differences:
1) The followers of Hazrat Moses were divided into two groups, Saduqeen and Fareseen. In spite of the difference in religious interpretation, both were of the view that following the Shariat Mosavi was necessary, as it was final and not to be changed.
Hazrat Jesus was of the opinion that on account of the change in the time and conditions, religious codes and laws needed suitable modifications. But the persons who were authorized interpreters of Mosaic laws considered change in these against their vested interest, so they opposed it. They insisted on strict adherence to those laws. Hazrat Jesus said that emphasis should not be on the laws but there was grace also which was to be counted. Shah Latif has translated that idea as:
3)The Jews, like Zoroastrians, considered God having two attributes. One of punishment and other of mercy. In order to pacify the attribute of punishment sacrifice of blood and fat was considered necessary. Bu Jesus was full of mercy and love. He like his Father, used to love all his creatures. All the troubles which fall on the, people are the result of their bad deeds and not on account of the wrath of God. Shah Latif has interpreted it.
Therefore Christ did not consider the giving of sacrifice necessary. That was the third cause of differences between Christ and the orthodox followers of Moses.
4) The Jews were told that the main purpose of religion was reformation of character and peace and prosperity. For that reason they were told to follow the laws of Moses. But the followers for the performance of these laws considered violence necessary. For its fulfillment they considered mixing religion with politics. Therefore they considered the formation of a government for spreading of religion necessary. Israel was a small nation which lived in a limited area, and around it there were big empires and in order to fulfil their religious laws, conflict with the neighboring countries became un-avoidable. Christ taking a lesson from history was of the opinion. That violence and force should be given up and love, giving of peace to the minds should take their place Jews Saduqeen and Fareseen were trained and accustomed to use violence for their fulfillment of religious laws Moreover they had acquired vested interest and so had lost the sense of tolerance. When Jesus instructed them that instead of punishing the sinner, the path of forgiveness should be adopted; instead of taking vengeance from the enemy, he should be treated with love and affection. The orthodox rigid and formalistic Jewish Clergy (Rabbi) considered these things against their laws and traditions, therefore they opposed every effort of Jesus to reform the Jews.
5) From centuries the Jews had the belief that in case of their downfall, the promised Christ will come and get them back their kingdom. But when Christ actually came and said that he was the promised prophet, they then expected that he would free them from the slavery of Romans and get them back their kingdom.
But Christ, considering the conditions concluded that committing of violence would not benefit the Jews. Therefore the first thing was for them to devote their time and efforts in reformation of their character and adopting right deeds. Therefore he told them that the best government was the Kingdom of Heaven, for which force and violence was not necessary but the path of love and winning of hearts will have to be taken. But the Jews could not understand these spiritual and valuable methods. So they insisted on getting of political power and government for which they had thought for all the past centuries. At present Christ, instead of getting them worldly power, preached for the acquirement of spiritual happiness. The Jews did not like this and they went against him.
6) After Moses, Israelis seem to have been divided into groups:
7) Like Brahmans, Israeli Sardars and learned people considered themselves as a selected nation and above other nations. The Israelis practical circumcision was a compulsory rite (Khatna). Therefore they considered those persons who had not performed circumcision alien to their religion and nation. Their conception of God "Jahwa" was the God of Israelis, and they considered salvation also as their own right. But the conception of God, before Christ was that He was Father of humanity and the creator one. Shah Latif said that:
10) Approximately, Jesus came fourteen hundred years after Moses. In between these two prophets had appeared in the world. Apart from Israelis in the East several prophets had appeared like Gothum Buddha, Mahatma Mahavir and Zarthushta, who had brought the new messages, new hopes, new thinking. It is likely that Christ may not have been informed about their teachings. Most of the prophets came from God, and they came on account of historical requirements and necessity of time, and on account of spiritual continuity they were necessary. But the Jews could not understand their meaning and purpose on account of their narrow mindedness and conservation. They started opposing him but Christianity, in spite of difficulties, went on spreading. For some time this went on underground then afterwards openly, with the result that the Roman Emperor himself became a Christian. Today among the entire humanity, 40% or 50% are Christians, due to their right methods and beliefs they have reached this stage.
RELIGION OF ISLAM
The founder of this religion was Prophet Mohammed He was the descendant of Hazrat Ibrahim, from his Egyptian slave girl Bibi Hajira's son Ismail. Prophet Mohammed was over twenty eighth descendant of Ismail. His father's name was Abdullah. His mother's name was Amina. His father and mother died when he was young. After that, in the beginning he remained under supervision of his grandfather Abul Muttalib, and after that his uncle Abu-Talib. His great grandfather's name was Hashim. Therefore, lie was called of the Hashmi family. They were the custodians of Ka'aba Prophet Mohammed was born in Mecca on 12th Rabi-ul-Awal on Wednesday. From childhood he was considered to be of an exemplary character and good deeds. One rich lady, who had lost her husband, named Khadeeja-tul-Kubra, married him at tile age of 24 and entrusted him with her entire trade management. She was at that time 40 years old. Mohammed, on account of the trade of his wife, used to go to Mesopotamia and Syria, where he met several persons belonging to other religions and some ascetic persons of Syria and Mesopotamia: He used to remain there for sometime, as these were the centers of civilization and citizenship, where Babul and Summair civilizations had been. At that time in those countries, many of the learned persons belonging to Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism used to be there. Sindh and India's prophets and religions had direct or indirect influence over those countries. In the neighborhood there was Egypt, which was the center of one of the oldest civilization and citizenship and religious beliefs. At the age of 40, Prophet Mohammed in the cave of Hira saw a vision, which frightened him. When lie narrated the story to his wife she consulted an old man (Warqa Bin Naufil), who told her that it was the angel Gabriel who had met Mohammed. That was the beginning of the meetings of the angel with the Prophet. Then such meetings continued. It is said that after every visit of the angel, he became senseless and spoke certain words, which were remembered by his companions and were written down. Fifteen years after his demise, one of his companions, Usman, collected all the material and prepared the book, which was called by the name of "Furqan". His wife and Cousin Ali, son of his uncle Abu-Talib, and his adopted son, Zaid, accepted the belief in his prophethood. Among the Prophet's companions, it is said, first to believe was Abdullah-Bin-Kaifa, who afterwards became known by the name of Abu-Bakar Siddiq.
From Hazrat Ismail's descendant only Hazrat Mohammed (peace be upon him) became Prophet. Whereas from Hazrat Ishaq, his son Hazrat Yaqoob, who later was named Israel. His descendants got famous as Banu Israel. From them were born many prophets. Hazrat Moosa, Hazrat Dawood, and Hazrat Issa were of great repute amongst them. They came with divine books. Other prophets after them left small contributions. Hazrat Moosa's book was Torah, Hazrat Dawood's book was Zaboor and Hazrat Issa's book was Injeel, and all combined was named Bible.
On Hazrat Mohammed (peace be upon him) revealed verses were called Qura'an and whatever he preached were treated as AHADIS. The Ka'aba in Mecca was the old prayer house. Here (according to lunar year there are 360 days) about 360 idols were kept. Every tribe had its own idol.
Therefore it served as the temple of Pantheon. Prophet Mohammed, in view of being from the family of Ibrahim, and Bani Israel also preached the belief in one God (Monotheism), and he made several followers. In Ka'aba all the tribes who had their idols, on account of his preaching the worship of one God, turned against him. His teachings were also not in accordance with Judaism and Christianity, so the majority of the people turned against him. His followers were put to various difficulties and tortures. In order to save themselves some of them migrated to Ethiopia and took refuge under the Ethiopians Christian King, Najashi, who gave them protection. In Mecca, which was the center of Arab people, there were many followers, so the Prophet decided to migrate to Madina. When the people of Mecca came to know about their migration, they tried to assassinate the Prophet, but he left Ali, his cousin, on his bed and himself left for Madina with Hazrat Abu- Bakar. Thereupon the people of Mecca pursued to capture him. But he managed to allude them with the grace of Allah, and reached Madina safely. When the residents of Madina came to know about this, they welcomed him and gave him half of their property. The outsiders who came from Mecca were called Muhajirs and residents of Madina who welcomed them, were called Ansars. After migrating to Madina he propagated his religion openly, with the result that the number of followers increased. Hearing this news the people of Mecca increased their opposition. In Mecca, they were on defense, but in Madina, after increasing in numbers, they adopted an aggressive attitude. Slowly, after breaking the opposition in the vicinity of Madina, they wanted to go for pilgrimage to Mecca. But at the first time they were not allowed to perform pilgrimage and were forced to turn back. Next year, they came with great preparation to Mecca for performance of pilgrimage. Mecca was conquered and all the idols were taken from Ka'aba. After the conquest of Mecca the tables turned and the whole of Arabia started hiding them. Previously preaching of religion was done through teaching and persuasion. Now, after coming into power they considered that taking the oath of allegiance to Muslims was necessary. Afterwards, people-had to take oath, allegiance on converting into Muslims or were made slaves or to accept the confiscation of their property by Muslims. Arabs were fighting people. They were divided among themselves. They were ignorant and followers of tradition. He brought them together on one platform and after the conquest of Mecca, they followed him. In accordance with an Aayat (verse) of Qura'an "Today, your mission has been completed and We completed Our Blessings to you and shown you the path of Islam". Arabs, from that day, started to come on to one platform and started conquering different parts of Arabia, Middle East, Egypt and Persia and thus the Arabs created their imperialism. Arabia was near to Mesopotamia, Persia, Sindh, Syria and Egypt. They had their own civilization, citizenship and a great kingdom. Iran and Mesopotamia were under the Sasanic Empire. Sindh was under the Brahman rule, which was smaller than the present Pakistan. Syria, Egypt and Asia Minor were under the Roman Empire. Several books have been written on the Arab rise and fall. Our purpose here is concerned with their religious beliefs and policy. Old Arabs, idol worshippers, beliefs were based on the beliefs of Summair, Egypt, Babul, Persia, India and Bani Israel; Prophet Mohammed came from the Bani Israel group of Prophets. One group of the followers of this religion was of this opinion that:
(i & ii) Prophet Mohammed was the last prophet, sinless and having knowledge of the future. The leaders have already told about the teachings of following religions:
a) After this, the coming of prophets has been closed. If the meaning is that, then in the world, new messages, knowledge, science, and meanings of wisdom, new invention was closed and every wisdom, science, new information and inventions after Prophet Mohammed are stopped. This meaning would be wrong and against the meaning of the religion of Nature. Nature contained unlimited knowledge and information. From it every day, new message and information could be acquired.
Shah Latif says:
Corroborated, the Prophet of Islam was the person who the previous religions and believed in the law of evolution. So who can close that unlimited mine of God's knowledge and wisdom. This conception was against the spirit of the law of Nature.
b) It is said about the Prophet that he had the knowledge of the supernatural and he knew everything. Therefore lie had placed before the people such laws and religion that it could be applicable in every age, conditions and requirements. From a social analysis this claim is nullified. You will find this claim against the spirit of his teachings. Two instances are given here:
a) About Prophet Mohammed, Muslims say that once his opponents asked him to show them some miracle. So he pointed his finger towards the moon and the moon was divided into two parts and the distance between these two parts was such a great like a mountain could be seen between them. Such stories are often told in folklore and in ancient times people used to believe them. About Nature and world phenomenon, it is said in the Qura'an "Do not talk ill of phenomenon, because He (God) Himself is phenomenon." Phenomenon is His creation and no one had the power to change it. The solar system was also his creation. It was not easy to change it. To satisfy a few persons nobody had the power to break the moon. To believe in such things was weakness of reason. If one believes in such things, then the narratives or folklore, about Apollo, Brahma, Shiv, the Greek God and Arian gods and the prophets of the Jews, Hazrat Moses, and other prophets will also have to be believed. In that case, supposedly a few persons could change natural phenomenon, and then the settled laws of nature will also change or disappear. Prophet Mohammed is considered the last prophet because he had rejected such things and had upheld the supremacy of the law of Nature. He had told people that they should follow reason and not such folklore, which had no logical foundation. One Sindhi poet says:
b) The second thing, which has been given currency by the Muslims about Prophet Mohammed, is that on 27th of Rajab, during the night he rode on the horse (Buraq) and reached the seventh sky and talked to God. And at the time of their meeting the distance between God and the Prophet was very limited, as if it was between the colors of the rainbow, At that time he spoke on various matters to God. On the third sky he met certain prophets and on the fourth he met other prophets, where he was shown hell and heaven. The rivers of paradise were Jehun, Sehun, Nile, etc. It is said that he went and returned from Mairaj in so short a time that the door chain was- still swinging as when he had gone.
These things are given so much importance that these have become a disputed question, whether he acquired ascension (Mairaj) in his dream or bodily. A majority of Muslims believe in physical ascension (Mairaj). Such a story is also told about Prophet Moses, that he used to go on Mount Sinah and used to converse with God, and God used to show him in cloud and lightening. It is said about Jesus, that after being crucified and buried in a grave, he was taken up to the sky by angels and he is alive and will come back to the world. If we are to believe such absurdities then by the very logic of it we have to believe in the Greek, Hindu and other mythologies. Then all the information received by us through reason and science will be proved redundant. There are no seven skies like this world, the existence of men and rivers, meeting with God and speaking with Him. Such a belief will drag down God to material and put Him in man's condition:
Shaikh Saadi says about God:
To think about the unlimited and unseen (and unfathomable) power to compare it with the human attributes, is impossible. Majority of the Muslims holds the belief that Prophet Mohammed had complete knowledge of unknown things. His knowledge surrounded the entire world. He knew things from the beginning to the end. But these things after comparing with Islamic history, and later experiences, will not come out as truths. Amir Hamza was the Prophet's uncle and used to love the Prophet. In the battle of Uhad he was killed in fighting behalf of the Muslims. Prophet Mohammed also loved him. Amir Muavia's mother, Hind, wife of Abu-Sufyan, went, after the battle, and cut out his liver, she chewed and ate the same. That was the height of savagery and disrespect. Among those who had shown the enmity, whether in Mecca or in Madina to the Prophet's family and his cause, was -Abu-Sufyan's family.
Prophet's cousin and son-in-law and the first person, who had accepted the faith in the prophethood of Mohammed, was Ali. Muavia fought him and ultimately got him killed. Prophet-Mohammed's grandson and Ali's son, Hussain, was killed by the son of Muavia, Yazeed, and his head was carried on a spear and displayed throughout the journey from Kufa to Damascus, in the cities of Mossal and Damascus. The ladies of his family were also surrounded in the city, and during the days of Banu-Umaia dynasty, the descendants of Prophet Mohammed were' abused from the pulpit of the mosques. During that period most of the Islamic laws were broken and the religion of peace was turned into a religion of bloodshed, and characterlessness was at its worst. If it is said that the Prophet had prior knowledge of the future, then how can one justify his action that after the conquest of Mecca, Abu Sufian's family was forgiven. Not only that but a general proclamation was issued that anybody who took shelter under the roof of Abu-Sufian, should not be touched. What was the meaning of this? Either he had no knowledge of the future or, if he had, what was the reason behind these things? Among Muslims, the belief is in "Khatumul-Nabeen". That is, he was the last Prophet. This belief is so strong that Bhutto's government was compelled to surrender before public opinion. So his government declared the Qadianies to be non-Muslims. This was only because the Qadianies treated their head, Mirza Ghulam Muhammad Qadiani as a prophet. Though Qadianies used to recite the Qura'an and said prayers and believed in Prophet Mohammed and called themselves Muslims, and they were staunch Muslims, more than Bhutto and many other Muslims. Against that, there were many persons among the Muslims who used to call themselves God; and there were certain persons who disbelieved in the existence of God and in Islam. They have not been declared non-Muslims. Now let us see how Prophet Mohammed could be considered the last prophet. This question could be discussed from three points of view:
ii) From the beginning of humanity, people of different ages, like the age of savagery, nomadic, agriculture trade, industrial and the scientific era has passed and every age had its intellectual and social civilization. Therefore, according to requirements of the time, philosophers, prophets and reformers emerged amongst them and preached to the people, according to their understanding and knowledge, After the advent of Prophet Mohammed, humanity had progressed so much that there was no further necessity of any prophet. Previously what was called "Ilhaam" or Vahi is now called progressive reasoning. Therefore, there was no necessity of a prophet.
iii) He had placed certain things before the people for the guidance
and salvation of humanity. On account of which practical questions could
be solved-. It will be better than I should try to explain the Above mentioned
three points on certain reasons:
When one builds a house, it requires to be furnished and decorated after its completion. It will not be necessary to rebuild it. - Unless with the passage of time, the building deteriorates to such an extent that it has to be rebuilt. The theory of- unity behind diversity, which was placed before the people, was only with that object, there can be modifications and reforms, but it is made of such material, so it does not require to be re-constructed. But it should not be considered that God's creative and reformative power has stopped.
The second point, which Prophet Mohammed had explained, was great according to-his interpretation, the evolution of all the religions and books were to be believed without any difference. Learned Muslims- ' because of their vested interests had turned the interpretation in a manner that the earlier prophets of God had the books but, with the change of time these had become obsolete and so only Prophet Mohammed's book and his code were to be accepted and practiced. If you carefully ponder over the interpretation of mullahs you will find that this view was against the injunctions of the Qura'an and the spirit of Mohammed's message-, and depended only on ignorance.' its dual meanings will be from the time of creation of the world. According to evolution of nature the religious theories and codes are evolving for the purpose of unity, peace and perfection of humanity. These are changing from time to time, like the stages of the university education, which starts from primary then, to secondary and High School, then the college stages or just like a big building of several floors, which you will have to reach 'by several flights of stairs. These are the historical and 'natural processes. They cannot be rejected or forgotten. They have got their own place. It can be given the period of evolution of different stages, as working of nature is dependent on unlimited stages. It cannot be limited within the confines of certain principles, religious codes and considered final and a unique code of life. This view will be ignorance of law of evolution. Therefore to limit it and call it complete will be against the spirit of nature itself, which is limitless and timeless. All the persons who have in the past talked about belief on the basis of books have to be interpreted in two ways:
These books of various prophets are blessed on different times as explanation of their religions for the reformation of men. And the second kind of books were those which were the result of historical experience, different types of learning and the human genius of scientific inventions, have covered various stages of life. Now the question arises that when we talk about the belief in books, are we talk about the books produced by prophets or the knowledge acquired by human brain from historical -experiences in day to day life culminating in scientific knowledge? For this I have got the following arguments-
b) From dictionaries the meaning of a Book can be found. The dictionary describes the meaning of a book, to be a written story or some experience, whether it is of history or mundane experience, the judgement comes from Nature. According to it every historical event and scientifically prove d reality in any country and nation creates some base on which certain codes can be incorporated in the meaning of a book. In view of this all the historically proven realities, philosophies, sciences and theories can all be counted in the world of books. The meaning of a Messenger means prophet who brings new information, guide and reformer or spiritual leader of a nation. The ultimate meaning of this will be that the message in the belief of Prophet Mohammed will not be confined only to belief in various prophets' books, and their sayings, but a belief in everything. Produced through historical experience and every practically proven formula or conception through philosophy, science and experience will become necessary. Everything which science, reason, experience and philosophy has rejected will have to be considered, useless, whether it appears in Vedas and books of Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Bible or Qura'an.
In accordance with the above-mentioned analysis, it will be wrong notwithstanding hundreds of learned persons holding these to be right. Everything which is roved wrong by the law of evolution, every code and written document Of the past will have to be rejected in the present, if it is proved wrong on the basis of historical judgement of law of Nature.
c) Prophet Mohammed had said that any person or nation was entitled to salvation only if he believes in three things:
ii) The belief in life after death which means the existence and continuity of spiritual life.
iii) Doing good deeds this means belief in the works, which are meant, for the unity, peace and prosperity of mankind, which must be free from individual selfishness.
This one instruction debunks all the theories invented or later adopted by the Vested interests of religions, and particularly the vested interests of Muslims, whose believe was persons entitled for salvation are Muslims and followers of Prophet Mohammed and all the followers of other religions are to be consigned to hell or that they are ignorant or faithless. The Muslim vested interests say that, on the basis of their theory, all the other religions and their codes have been rejected. Therefore they have to believe that in one time they were right, but now, after the advent of Prophet Mohammed, they were rejected. If that theory can be accepted then their mention belief in them could not have been referred in the Qura'an. Certain Muslims do not know the very existence of all the prophets. Some say that prophets of Banu Israel were the prophets and others were not. Even if you say that God's blessings be on the prophets of the Hindu, Buddha, Zarthusht and others, then the Muslims will become angry. In accordance with the instructions laid down in the Qura'an, even the present Muslims cannot be termed as Muslims, who have made the working of Islam (religion of Nature) their monopoly. The creator of universe (God)' considered belief in Him necessary. If they consider Him merciful and a lover more than one's father, ultimate truth and just, then how can they believe the followers of other religions or persons to be faithless. How can they consider them doomed to permanent hell for not believing in the particular interpretation of the Muslims sect and not even fit for salvation. From the above mentioned Aayat, it is clearly proved that for progress, peace and salvation, only persons believing in God and life after death and performance of good deeds will be entitled. But other ignorant Mullahs will not accept this interpretation. I will, therefore, try to analyze more on the subject:
WHAT IS THE MEANING OF BELIEF IN GOD?
In short, as narrated above, I have tried to show that from the beginning, people believed each supernatural power and other things fit for benefiting and harming people. And I have also narrated that how people have tried to understand the supernatural power and please it. First of all the Animist and non-Animist things considered to be Possessors of spirits. As such they started worshipping them to get their blessings. Further, they called the supernatural power by the name of Ishwar Brahma, Jahwa, God, Khuda, Allah, etc. In the world first came' the conception of plurality of God; afterwards came trinity, the duality and trinity of God. Along with the evolution of mankind the concept of intellectual evolution, God's concept also went on passing through various stages. At one time every supernatural thing was considered as God. This has reached the present concept about Allah among the Muslims. God has said in the Qura'an: ."Do not call the universe bad because I myself am universe". According to that concept God and Nature can not be two separate things. But according to Monist point of view, there can be no other existence excepting God.
The meaning of La-Illaha-Ilallah, according to certain dervishes, it means that there is only one existence of God.
Everything else is non-existent. At present, the philosophy of understanding
the knowledge is divided in two
branches. Idealism and Materialism, that is to say:
That means nothing is created without a plan and purpose; the second group. says that entire creation is the result of an accident. The first group, after belief in a planned purpose, is compelled to believe in the central authority and gave it a name. Therefore, for the salvation of problems, they believe in one authority. Ana the believers of the second philosophy do not believe in God. To understand the secret of creation and live a life, believing in the central authority i-, considered positive. Sindhi Sufis, in order to understand the secret, have become believers in Wahdat-ul-Wajood or Monism. Shah Latif says:
As about the existence of God, there are different ideas of conception in the, same manner the ideas about the future has also been narrated at different times and countries, with many explanations. Muslims' 'have called it by the name of "Qayamat" of "Day of judgement" or unknown future (Ghaib). Now the question arises that the future of whom? Whether it is the future of creation or is it the future of the physical world or future of spirit (rooh) whether future of an individual man or humanity. If you think about it, you will come to know that the future of all the things narrated above are mixed with each other. In the world there are two powers working simultaneously. One towards, the progress and the other towards annihilation, one towards, good and other towards bad one towards light and other darkness. The first leads to evolution righteousness and right knowledge. The second leads to death and wrong. The Muslim Mullahs had interpreted the meaning of future Qayamat (Akhirat), as under:.
At one time there will be a terrible roar from Angel Israfeel, whereby the mountains will be smashed, earth will become flat and the solar system will be finished and the entire creation will come to an end. After that life will again be created, man will come out from the earth like mushrooms, the dead of millions of years, from the dust all the creation will rise in their original form and will meet on the plain of HASHER (Day of Resurrection). The sun will come very near and, on other side God will be seen sitting on the throne. Between God and the earth there will be a river of hell and a bridge over it. All the persons gathered there will be called by God from the other side and ordered to cross this bridge which will be thinner than a hair and sharper than a sword (Pulsarat). Those persons who have sacrificed animals will be. able to cross the bridge Before God there will be one weighing instrument, hanging for the weighing of works and deeds performed by people, and everybody will go to hell or heaven according to his/her weight of good of bad deeds. Also of various kinds have been narrated, prayers of God, fasting, giving Zakat and performance of Hajj and various other things are narrated in -the list of good deeds. Of one of the bad deed it is narrated that after urinating all the stones used for the cleaning of urine and various other things will be considered among good deeds. I have narrated above that the concept of Qayamat (Future) was originally taken from the writings of the Pyramids of Egypt, which came through Summair and Babul teachings to Israel and Muslims. Along with this concept the punishment and reward of the body and soul has been connected. The Simitics gave this concept. On the other side, in the concept of Arian religions about the future, it is said that every in man, in accordance with his/her deeds will depend upon the good or bad deeds committed by the persons. According to which the creature will have to pass through various phases of life. If he/she has performed good deeds he will pass on into a new life after death, to a better condition of life. But if he had performed bad, deeds then in his next life he will be degraded to live a bad life. On this the Sindhi Sufis consider the first concept of the future, whether paradise or hell, as wrong. They say:
Good deeds from which outward benefit appears is concerned mostly with transitory on a personal basis. From the beginning many of the people, tribes and religious groups have concerned themselves with personal or group benefit. Therefore many of the religions have given man a separate spirit in this world and future paths of salvation have been found out. In Egyptian and Simitic religions, personal spirit and their punishment and questions of reward have been given prominence. Their religious basis is oiling this material. The questions of punishment and reward have been given prominence in their religious beliefs. Day of judgement, the bridge over hell, the principle of punishment and reward have been kept in view, in which the individual soul and its deeds have been given importance. On the other side, Arian religious have also kept individual spirits on the basis of deeds.
There also personal progress or derogation has been given prominence. On the basis of Kerma (Fate) reward after death, good or sinful acts have been considered as the measure for the progress or deterioration of the soul. From those religions only followers of Buddha Dharm have risen above the average level and thought about a collective salvation for humanity. But the followers of this religion also have not freed themselves from the concept of individual "Junne" (Sin) and thought only of Nirvan Padd as the means of salvation of the (soul) spirit. What was the difference between individual and collective spirits? Many religions have given less importance to this. Many religions, believing in the variety of spirits, have given such importance to the personal salvation of spirit. On the basis of these principles the idea of good deeds was invented. in this they have kept the following considerations:
According to the philosophy of Wahdaniat, Wahdat-ul-Wajud and Monism, the spirit is one, within which all creation lives. Its example can be given from the sea. Its drops of water which, on account of heat, turn into vapor and change form, ultimately go into the sea again and become one with it. Sachal Sarmast says:'
Keeping those things -in view Buddhists have fixed the following principles for 'the completion and salvation of the individual spirit:
4. Whether the Qura'an was a final code of Life.
That concept is also wrong. Qura'an, consists of four kinds of saying: One Aayats Banta Muhukimat means the orders containing the fundamental principles. Two - Aayats Mohtashabihat means allegorical explanation. Third - Instructions for particular happenings, which were rejected by the change of circumstances. These were called Mansukhat. Fourth concerning the ordinary and temporary problems. In accordance with the vision of these instructions, the first kind of instructions were to remain permanent the rest were considered to be useless.
Therefore blindly sticking to the other three kinds of instructions
was wrong. Just as followers of other prophets considered their books final
and complete, in the same manner the Muslims vested interests also said
the same thing, which was not new. The Qura'an, was not a complete code,
as nothing in this material world can be called last and complete. That
position will continue right up to the end of the world. Moulana Rumi says
about the Qura'an:
"I have taken out the essence from the body of Qura'an and left the b ones for dogs to fight on. "
5. Whether Shariat-e-Islam
or Nizam-e-Mustafa was a complete code of life for entire humanity?
Among Muslims, like the other religions, this belief has remained. That Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) prepared a code of law which was a complete cod of life of humanity and for ever. That is also wrong. But I would rather say that the greater portion of that Shariat has been discarded and proved useless, and it will never be useful again. Such things can be said either by fools or by persons who, in order to keep their vested interests in existence, continue to talk about a shariat (code) which time has made obsolete. Presently I will enunciate the Islamic code of life and point out that on account of the change in society, many Shariat rules have proved untenable or open to changes in the constantly changing social conditions. Here are a few examples of these:
The institution of Khilafat, the Muslims have made part of their religion. There is not an iota of evidence to prove that there is any definite instruction in the Qura'an or among sayings of the Prophet about Khilafat. The second ruler "Umer" brought this innovation (Jidat). He had two purposes in view:
b) Greater portion of Arabia was desert and hilly with few towns or villages. Most of the people were spread in tribes and used to pass a nomadic life, moving in their tribal caravans and pitching their tents near grazing grounds. There was no agriculture worth the name.
He had two missions yet to be performed. One was to unite the divided Arab families and tribes into one nation, and the second was that in the face of several religious beliefs and traditions, to unite the masses under one spiritual teaching. He succeeded in his first mission. But he bad no resource to fulfil the second one. His life had also reached its last days. Therefore he left the work of has second mission in the hands of a few of his followers. But in the completion of his first mission he knew that for getting power, there was a likelihood of conflict, so he left the question unsettled because of those conflicts religion would be affected.
There was one such instance in history. After conquests Alexander the Great, left his Empire when he was still young. Someone asked him as to whom was he entrusting the reins of Government. As he knew from the Generals that several of them were anxious to come into power, so if he nominated one the others would oppose. Therefore he left this question undecided and, thought that in the future things will take their own course. As, whoever will be powerful in whichever area, he will form the government. After that his government was divided among three of his stalwarts.
In the same manner the Prophet also left the question of political power to be decided by the people in future. Umer was clever in political affairs. Therefore the joined religion with politics, and on the basis of the tradition of Christianity, created the institution of Khilafat on the pattern of the popes. Through his influence he got installed Abu-Bakar's first Khalifa, because he (Abu-Bakar) was very old and Umer thought that after the demise of Abu-Bakar the reins of Government would come to him. He knew that the Arabs had united in the name of religion, but behind the scene power of politics had also been used. Therefore he based the policy of his politics on four pillars:
According to him, any Arab tribe, which came for the sake of Government stability and expansion, had no authority. Therefore, Muslims violated the Islamic code. After Abu-Bakar came Umer and after him Usman succeeded.
In the days of Usman, for administration of the newly conquered countries, persons were appointed from the Banu Umayya tribe. During that period they consolidated the power in the hands of Banu Umayya. So when Ali's time came, the power was in the hands of the Governors who rebelled against his rule. Ultimately Muavia, who was in charge of Syria, became so powerful that he started open rebellion against Ali. Later he got him assassinated and appointed his own son, Yazid, as his successor.
In the days of Yazid, those who did not accept his rule were forcibly removed from the area. First lmam Hussain was killed and afterwards Abdullah-Bin-Zubair and others, so the field became clear for the Bani-Ummaya tribe to rule. Look into history, and you will find the following two theories were adopted from the Jewish and Christian traditions:
ix) Photography and making of sculptural
seems to have been banned on account of a fear of a revival of idol worship. In Emperor Constantine's footsteps, they prohibited making of statues and taking of pictures in the beginning. But in their ignorance they did not know that idol worship and fine arts were quite different things. So, in the beginning they destroyed all the fine arts and even to a certain extent, books of other religions, and of non-Muslim origin. But as time marched on changing ideas, they too had to change their outmoded thinking, and now photography and making of statues are becoming common among the Muslims. For instance, Saudi Arabia's Wahabi rulers and Mullahs, at their height of fanaticism, had destroyed Mausoleums and graveyards. But now things have changed to such an extent that the very same Mullahs keep photo albums in their houses, and in the city of Cairo, Muhammad Ali Pasha's statue, on horse back, is kept in the middle of the road. Mustafa Kamal Pasha's statue is on a high stand in Ankara at a prominent place. Pakistan currency notes carry Jinnah's photo, and all coins and buildings have photos of Jinnah and other persons, the result is that this traditions of the Muslims has also been abolished.
The Britishers saw the ignorance and short sightedness of the Muslims
and in order not to displease them; this law did not apply to the Muslims.
During the rule General Ayub's, a ban was put on marriage of minor girls,
as the Islamic code was not God's code, which could not be changed.
Arab Conquest of other Countries and their people:
On the other hand the Mullahs honored tyrant kings as "Shadow of Allah" and life giver of Islam and "Sahib-e-Kiran (the leader of the age Jalalatul Mulk). All this was wrong and against the very spirit of Islam. If God was just and a supporter of freedom and Rab-ul-Almeen (maintainer of the universe), then how could He allow a few persons to exploit the resources of' the country in the name of religion and utilize it for personal interest. Therefore to make all this, a part of Islam is not justified. To consider such beliefs as part of the Islamic code is to malign the name of Islam. Now-a-days democracy is the best political principle. Therefore many people have discarded monarchy. it is clear that -,ill this happened due to change of society. This old institution also has disappeared. So to say the judgements of mullahs, Qur'anic Aayats or Prophet's sayings cannot put life in a dead horse. That is, it is a lesson of world history that when old issues have lost their force, new issues rule the day.
xvii) Qura'an, is complete and final
order of God:
Many Muslims are of the opinion that Qura'an, is the saying of God and whatever is written in it is right and final. But our mind should be clear on this as many books of other religions are considered "ILHAMI". The followers of those religions consider that God through Angels sent those books. Therefore, whatever is written in them are correct and final and free from mistake. On this point many Muslims have different views. One group said that the Qura'an, had come through superior intelligence of Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him). Therefore it was created. The other group said that Qura'an, was the word of God and Angel Gabriel used to tell these to the-Prophet from time to time. Those sayings, afterwards were brought in book form during the days of Usman. Some persons have declared that one-fourth of the material had been taken away from the book. That is open to argument. Therefore, that question should not be raised at this time. But, after looking clearly in the Qura'an, one can finds these mentioned.
4) Aayat-Furuat: These Aayats were for a transitory purpose and could not be considered as of permanent value.
Keeping these facts of ever changing circumstances, things must be seen from a different angle. The well-known Western Philosopher, Dr. Bernard Shaw, had said that the books of all religions should be read like the morning papers and good information be acquired from them, then kept in the cupboard. The whole universe is tile book of God. One has to take lessons from that as Shaikh Saadi said:
What the Qura'an says in this direction is as under:
Qura'an guides that you should learn a lesson from everything. But most of the Muslims are stuck to Qur'an's unnecessary parts and refuse to read the book of Nature. How it is reasonable that one should refuse to obey the instructions of Qura'an for reading the book of Nature. But reading the unnecessary words of the Qura'an everything of nature is in the Qura'an. They require eyes, which can see them. Christ in his Sermon on the Mount had said that "some people hear through ears but do not understand, some see with the eyes but do not realize. This nation is called with fat on its heart." Muslims also have become the same.
Keeping these things in view Shah Latif said:
Hafiz Sheerazi says:
xviii) In the view of Qura'an, about the creation of human being is:
Creation of Humanity: Qura'an, in the footsteps of Torah, has declared them to be descendants of Adam, whose time of creation has also been narrated by the scholars of Torah and Injeel, and certainly by the learned Muslims. According to which Adam's time was 7000 years ago. But the archeological findings, even the antiquities of the Pyramids of Egypt, are 7500 years old. According to which the time mentioned by the Qura'an and Torah is not correct. In the opinion of Geologists, mankind was in existence 20 lacs (2 millions) years ago, according to which the period mentioned about Adam in the Qura'an and Torah is wrong. Torah and Qura'an contain very nice guidance and instructions, but there are several things in them, which have been proved wrong by historical and scientific research. Therefore to accept Qura'an and Torah, instead of in-creasing the value of Qura'an, will reduce it, Therefore we will have to reject them.
xix) Muslims are a separate Nation:
This ideology is not according to the Islamic teachings i.e. the religion of Nature, but it is borrowed from the Jews who called themselves "the chosen people of God". According to that ideology Israelis used to say that they were a selected nation, on account of their race and religion. Christ broke this idea and allowed non-Israelis and gentile persons to be the members of Christianity. On account of which the Israelis turned against Christ, with the consent of the Roman rulers, and crucified him. Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) being a descendant of Ibrahim, and from a branch of his religion. Introduced several things which were part of Judaism, just like circumcision or not eating swine and going round Ka'aba seven times, sacrificing of animals on the day of performance of Hajj and running between Safa and Marwa. Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) according to 'he teachings of Christ, left the door for Islam open for all mankind. But when Umer wanted to establish Arab Imperialism, he created the theory of Arab and Ajam. Arabic dress, Arabic language and Arabic customs were made part of Islam. The Arabs were considered a superior nation. Therefore, every non-Arab was told that the Arabs were a superior nation. So the followers who came under the rule of the Arabs, considered several Arabic things as superior, with the result that Arab tribal names and Arab names were considered to be better. Therefore, people were induced to declare themselves Arabs. The prayer house like Ka'aba and other buildings as sacred and visiting them and saying prayers at those places were made into reasons for the salvation of man. According to which all the persons who came under the domination of Arab Imperialism and adopted their customs and religious beliefs, were given special concession and Jazia tax was not taken and slave girls and slaves were not made from them. They were instructed to perform circumcision and to go to Hajj, fast in the month of Ramdan, offer prayers and learn the Arabic language and perform religious prayers in the Arabic language. Prophet Mohammed, while preaching Islam, had declared that all human beings were equal and free. But after the establishment of Arab Imperialism, the people of other countries were called Ajami (Dumb). They began to consider themselves as Jews, Romans and like that of Germans, the Britishers of the present era, as (selected nation) superior nation.
The result was that later several countries and other nations refused to recognize the Arab's superior position and considered Arab Imperialism as slavery. They threw off the yoke of Arab Imperialism. Several countries of Eastern Europe are an example.
The creation of Shia and Sunni sects were political. Those who accepted Arab Imperialism call themselves Sunnis and those who had the intellect rebelled against Arab Imperialism or Khilafat and created their own Government, several of them called themselves Shias. Shia and Sunni were sociopolitical groups. Shias were nationalists and Sunnis were the followers of Arab Imperialism. At present there are over forty Muslim Governments who are independent and sovereign. They do not believe in Khilafat. They are members of the United Nations. But among Muslim countries, there is only one country, Pakistan, where upper class group vested interest is served, so they consider Pakistan beneficial for them. They call themselves a Muslim nation. Such as Punjabis who are benefiting from this theory, Sindhis, Baluchis and Pakhtoons, who claim a separate nationhood, are rejecting this idea which simply creates justification for the Punjabi Imperialism. They are usurping the rights of the nation in the name of Islam. They call the Pakistanis a Muslim nation and in the name of democracy they keep them under their dominance. Against the condition of tyranny the Bengalis fought and separated themselves as an independent state. At present only Sindhis, Baluchis and Pakhtoon nations are being refused recognition as separate nation. In the name of Islam they are kept under the Punjabi dominance. In modern times Nationhood is accepted on the basis of territory, language, culture, historical traditions and political and economic interests. With these universally recognized basic conditions, most of members of United Nations have been accepted. I have shown in the list of free countries that out of a hundred and sixty members of the United Nations, Sindh is better fitted for independence and membership of the United Nations. Under those recognized conditions, what sin has been committed by the smaller Nations comprising the so-called Pakistan. That because of the Punjabi interpretation we should be deprived of the natural Sindhi right ~f nationhood which it had enjoyed for the last five thousand years. Why cannot Sindh be a nation, when many tiny places like Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan and Yemen are recognized separate nations. In spite of speaking the same Arabic language, having the same religion, culture and as such are allowed to be members of the United Nations. Why in the name of religion should our freedom be kept under Punjabi bondage? Most of the other Muslim nations have achieved freedom. Then why have those Muslim nations achieved freedom? If several Russian countries, on account of their political and economic freedom, have done away with religion, why should we be forced to adopt the same attitude? The theory that the Muslims are a separate nation has lost all its meaning. We refuse to accept such a counterfeit coin.
In olden days people used to fight among themselves. The groups stronger looted tile resources of poor and weaker people and brought them under its dominance. But all that was done under the savage law of the jungle "might is right". But these so-called Muslims on the contrary, and in the name of Allah, Prophet Mohammed and Islam, which was a religion of peace and love, should justify such inhuman practices and consider these honorable?
This was a gross and deliberate misuse of the name of Islam. Even now taxes from Sindh are being taken in the name of Islam, and conveniently used for the benefit of the Punjabis. Such an action is morally wrong and against Islamic spirit, and will have to be abolished sooner or later.
When once the progress and success of the people are checkmated, the idea that a certain reformer or Prophet will come to better their condition, in order to raise the moral of people. It is often said that in future some AUTAR, or MEHDI, will come and improve their condition. Hindus have this belief in times of difficulty 'Vishnu Maharaj' will come in the form of Ram Chander or Sri Krishin and improve their condition. Bani Israel had also the same belief that after the death of Moses, some one will come, who will get them back their Old Glory. In the same mariner Muslims have also been thinking, that first Prophet gave them glory and was to come again in the form of a Mehdi and to unite all the human beings and bring peace and prosperity all over the world.* Thus in the past several people, among the Muslims have claimed to be that Mehdi but all failed.
THE ADVENT OF CHRIST:
The Christians hope that Christ will get them hack their old glory and kingdom of the world. But Christ had told them that the kingdom of world is temporary and "Kingdom of Heaven" is permanent. Therefore the entire national socio-cultural buildup was to be based on a spiritual and ethical foundation. But the Jews did not understand his teachings and considered moral and spiritual reform as harmful to their material interest. Therefore: they got him crucified. In the same manner several reforms came in the Vedic Dharam, but the common people being ignorant of their own malady, could not understand their teachings. Gothum Buddha was a reformer of Vedic religion hut Hindu Pundits (Brahmans) did not tolerate him in the beginning, as his great teachings of the equality and oneness of humanity went against their social setup of higher and lower classes which gave them free slave labor. So from Buddhist thought vested interest was in danger. But after some time his followers were thrown out from India and his mission did not become successful.
Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) came from the desert of Arabia for the mission of reforming the Arab people. In the beginning the Arabs did not understand the real purpose of his mission. Instead his cousin, Hazrat Ali, and his son Imam Hussain were martyred though they lit the candle for the mission of Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him). As degeneration and degradation continued, Arabs and Muslims of other countries became disgusted and hoped that some Mehdi would come and fulfil the mission of re-generation. So several imposters came in various parts of the world, declaring that they had come to fulfill that mission of them several persons managed to acquire world power. Several of them were killed while there were also some God-fearing men among them, who came to improve the moral and spiritual condition of the Muslims. But, Muslim Mullahs and rulers opposed them. During their lifetime few persons paid attention to them. But after their demise, big Kubbas (tombs) were constructed over their graves and they were respected and sanctified as "Saints". But the purpose for which they had come to reform has not given any heed. Their graves were owned for fulfilling of the worldly prayers and incantations. Some people go to their graves for getting their wishes fulfilled, and some gone there to get themselves rid of diseases and other difficulties. Some go their to recite wazifas for purification of their mind, and some for miracles to happen, without ever realizing that when these reformers were alive they could not get anything from them. After their death what could they get from them. Muslims continue to this day to remain in the same retarded mental condition. They ought to know that reformers came to reform the social conditions of a particular period. By the change of time and circumstances new things had come about for which new remedies were required. Reformation and guidance of nations could not be performed by individuals, either through miracle or by spiritual force, but by creating public consciousness for improvement of their condition. Through this particular method things could be changed. Now-days to keep up hopes of a Mehdi to perform miracles for reformation and awakening of people, is idiotic.
XXiii) SUPERNATURAL POWER (GOD):
Not only Muslims, but also all the founders of religions have passed their lives for getting knowledge of God and to be benefited by that power. But they were notable to know God or get any benefit. They are still mentally wandering in its pursuit. Shah Latif says:
"If that purpose can be achieved, even till the Day of Judgement, then it is also earlier."
Or incantation of certain verses cannot achieve that unknown supernatural power, and knowledge. Deep studies may reveal the truth. The religions of the world, with their essence and philosophies and sciences, can give certain information. If the chemist passes his life in a research of chemistry or a doctor devotes his life to find out remedies of diseases, then he too can be considered a benefactor of humanity. For the improvement of material life practical steps are needed for the research. A life spent for the good of humanity is equal to saintly life.
xxiv) CONCEPTION ABOUT MATTER AND SPIRIT:
All the religions and philosophers and learned men passed their lives in finding the truth and secret of matter and spirit. Thousands of prophets, saints, rahibs (monks), rishies and Munies passed their lives in search of the secret knowledge of matter and mind. Some considered spirit as individual and separate and some considered it collective; some considered spirit a part of God; some have considered it beyond understanding and some have thought over its various evolutionary stages. Some say that the spirits evolve through various stages of matter vegetables and animal kingdom and ultimately reach human beings, from where they have to evolve and merge in the ocean of life. Some have tried to show that spirit and matter are separate things. But some have also tried to show two sides of the same picture. Some thought it in thesis form and some with anti-thesis. When they were unable to find through these methods, then they tried to find out through synthesis. Some religious hypothesis and philosophies have tried to express that there is unity behind diversity. Sufism, Humanism, Wahdat-ul-Wajud (Wahdaniat) have tried to search into this question from their point of view. According to Mahatma Mahavir as expressed by Shah Latif in the following words:
It is about these men it is said:
Qura'an explained in the following words:
Iqbal has expressed the same idea as under:
For the reformation of society, customs and laws become necessary:
Man is an evolved animal and species. He has got the same instinct as animals have. Therefore he becomes violent, selfish, unlimited sexual tendencies, desire for theft and hatred, with the result that he commits bloodshed, fights and quarrels. Slowly man, after long experience and wise men's instructions and old men's advises, religious leaders and rulers of the countries, lie acquires a certain code of life, customs, tradition and through them reforms the society. But afterwards, he came to know that the things which were invented for unity, peace and justice, everything was twisted by cunning and selfish people for their vested interests, who crushed the freedom of the people and made their own laws and customs. The Brahman class brought the common man under his laws for its interest. Bani Israel considered the laws superior to everything. In order to challenge the supremacy of the Brahman class, Mahatma Buddha tried to reform the society through moral and good deeds. On the other side Christ, in order to break the supremacy of priesthood's laws and customs, exploitation of Saduqeen and Freesin of the Jews. Saying that the Grace of God is superior to laws of religion in the third instance, among the Muslims, Sufis tried to free the people from the traditions and laws of Shariat. But mostly the ruling class of Pundits, Rabbis of the Jews and Mullahs gave trouble to these reformers, to keep their selfish vested interests intact, when they were custodians of law and dominated the people in the name of orthodoxy. On the other hand the moralists wanted to reform the morals and introduce good deeds and purify the mind. Shah Latif says:
Laws, customs, reform of society and individual discipline is necessary. But man's position is greater than these things, men make Laws. They have to remain under their control. But they are not to follow them blindly. Man has passed through various stages and ages. Every stage and age has got its own requirements. Therefore, with the change of society, the change of codes, laws and rules become necessary. The purpose reformers has been with the change of circumstances and new requirements of the time and conditions of the world society, new instructions and guidance have to become the rule of the time.
Shah Latif says:
Under the circumstances, reformers and thinkers looked at the change. in society and gave new directions just as the time changed. So the rules and regulations, for the guidance of society, will have to be changed to suit changed conditions of life.
PLEASURE OF SUPERNATURAL POWER:
When people came to know that there was some superior power hidden behind the world. Which created the trees, animals and maintains them and afterwards brought death upon them; heaven brought wrath and accidents on account of them, then they searched to know what was that power and how to influence it. In the beginning they wanted to control the power according to their wishes. But in this pursuit they could not achieve much. After long experience they came to the conclusion that the unknown and unlimited power could not come under their influence. After that, when they came to know their helplessness, they began to appease that power. In the first instance, when they wanted to bring it in their, control, it was called magic. The second phase of pleasing the supernatural power was called religion. They tried to adopt the following methods for its pleasure:
xxvii) BELIEF IN LIFE AFTER DEATH:
Whether life remains after death or not? This question has remained a debatable argument from a long time. Followers of most of the religions had the belief that 'the spirits were eternal.' Some believed that they were created under the order of God - on the day of creation. They were destined to remain in the world of spirits. From there they came at the appointed time and passed into life then, according to their deeds, went to heaven or below the earth or to the ether. On the day of judgement,, they will acquire some forms and meet on the plane of "HASHER", from where they will cross the river of hell across a bridge and after the result of their good or bad deeds go respectively to hell or heaven. Certain religions hold the opinion that the animals originally, through the 'survival of -the fittest', evolved from amoebae, and rose up to the status of man. In the same manner the spirit also evolved from matter, vegetables and animal stages and finally reached mankind. They take separate forms, according to the result of Karma (Fate) and ultimately get salvation, departs from the circle of life and reach Nirvan Padd. Certain groups say that God is origin and all others are attributes. When God wanted to show Himself to the world, He appeared in his attributes.
When Governments were formed on the basis of religious codes, then they are called theocratic governments. For conducting the cases on religious basis, the Kazis, Pundits, Kahan and Clergy are entrusted with cases of authorities. But when governments grow - in their territories, different religions and sects begin to live under those circumstances. The code of life of different religions and their sects increase.
Under those circumstances the judiciary and administrative s stems become very complicated. Under these circumstances it appoints magistrates with knowledge of different religions. And magistrates and their training and knowledge become difficult. In a joint society or cases in which the different religion are. involved, then the matter will be disputable. Whether the case is to be conducted by one magistrate or many magistrates haying knowledge of those religions. Moreover., because of the change of society, can the centuries old laws', fixed by the founders of different religions, be suitable. This is also an obviously disputable matter. Under such conditions and requirements of greatly changed times, great states fixed new and more suitable laws for the conduct of cases, and Governments are get up on secular basis. At present in the modern world, excepting a few countries, most of the countries elect their representatives through a democratic procedure to -conduct the administration and do justice in the countries. But in- Pakistan alone people have been told that the law will be based in accordance with the Islamic code. Yet every successive Government, on account of changed circumstances, has been forced to continue to change laws and conduct these through the people's elected representatives, but with no change of Governments.
It did not realized by well-educated lawyers and jurists of Pakistan. That the religious codes and traditions are of a centuries old society and, due to changes in the social pattern of life. These have become obsolete and do not at all suit the needs of such an advanced age as the supersonic and, nuclear age. Whereas the Islamic laws belong to a small Arab society of the medieval age, which draws its ethical genesis from the Torah. Therefore, on Account of changed circumstances, to conduct cases and administration under the authority of such an old social order is absurd and injurious to present-day social life. Moreover, there are such a lot of confusion in interpretations which have made the matter worse, so that it is practically impossible to work on those lines. In Pakistan the Islamic Administration and applying its medieval code of life is being talked about for the last (40) forty years, but nothing has been decided intelligently to face the reality of the situation. I have explained the things earlier, which are connected with the code of Islam as either they have been rejected or arc unworkable under the changed social order of our times. Many questions have cropped up, Which were not in existence thousand years ago. Just as railways, airplanes, road traffic rules, so many taxes, industries, democratic method of Government, trade with foreign countries, political and the modern diplomatic relations with pattern of protocol in foreign countries, modern method of warfare in defense, medicine and knowledge of different science have created such stupendous problems, which cannot be solved by working on the out-model social thinking of thousand years old traditions. Therefore the business of modern governments is conducted on secular and democratic forms.
Theocratic form of administration and law has already disappeared from the world, except in Israeli and Saudi Arabia. In Pakistan, on account of theocratic government, the religious heads keep so much control over people's life and mind that it becomes stultified. The social order of democracy, coexistence and cooperation are the basis on which ,people can get some freedom of thought and action. Therefore, now days, theocracy in socio-political life has practically disappeared and there is no possibility of its revival, as the world has never been static or has over gone in the reverse. The world has always marched forward. Progress is the pivot of life.
xxix Change of Religion and Freedom of Views:
Most of the religions have forbidden changing one's religion and will be converted to another one. In some cases for such a change, capital punishment is prescribed. Just as when one shows allegiance to another is considered a social crime and is given capital punishment. But in a democratic government of modern times, every person has got the right to freely express his or her opinion.* There cannot be restrictions on the. change of religion or change of opinion. It is strictly matter of personal conscious. However, to form an-organization in opposition to government is not prohibited. In democratic countries no man, woman, or group or party is entitled to thrust its political opinion or religious opinion on others. In the same manner, 'no nation is entitled to interfere in the affairs of other nations. One country does not have -the right to restrict or control another. These things are considered against the traditional rules that a state becomes dictatorial in the conduct of its government. Under the democratic rule, every person is considered to have born free, independent and has got the right to express his or her political, religious and social views publicly. But when it is known that most of the religions have created vested interests. Therefore, they refuse to accept the change of belief in books and prophets of their religions. And under the theocratic type rule of government, the religious code and its interpretations are made so sanctimonious that to follow these ones will lose his/her freedom, which is bestowed in individuals or nations by nature. The Mullahs and Pundits propound the codes of various religions, with such authority as if they got the authority from God to dictate -their views on people. Though pope-ism is dead in the major portion of the world, but it continues in Pakistan so their vested interests in religion forms their Empires. The same thing takes place under that dictatorial Government, where the religious individual authority is the last word. Now-a-days religion and democracy are -contradictory to each other. Democracy is not only the supporter of individual freedom, rather it is also the supporter of the freedom of every nation. just as imperialism is the enemy of national freedom, similarly the different orthodox, rigid ideas and religious codes 'of medieval religions are against an individual's intellectual freedom.
Therefore it seems that religious code and imperialist Governments and fascicle international ideologies support a dictatorial form of Government. On the other hand neo-nationalism or selfish nationalism democracy of nations, and freedom of opinion, are against each other. Therefore, people have, to be clear in mind that these-contradictory things cannot work together. They can only work with broad-minded toleration and on the theory of co-existence.
just as man has developed intellectually from animal, so several animals instincts are 'still in men. Therefore people, sometimes without cooperation and toleration, consider their own views right and thrust those forcibly on others. Thus from the beginning, the powerful have usurped -the property and resources of weaker people for their own use. Some even killed their opponents. Thus with the sword or whip they have dominated others in every age the dominant or ruling class, with the help of the clergy (mullah, priests or pundit), have invented their own beliefs and ideas, and justifies their authority and rule. Some had made use of reason and created the theory of survival of the fittest. So they say that in accordance with that rule of life, the strong and powerful must rule over the weaker people. Just as the wolf kills the goat, the falcon kills the doves and the cat kills the mouse and the tall trees do not allow the smaller trees to grow under them, so every powerful thing controls the weaker. But this unmoral code of behavior is not limited only to trees and animals, but is applied against weaker nations and tribes by stronger nations and tribes. As male dominated the weak female.* Gradually as social conscious developed it was realized that physical superiority was not the criterion for righteousness and that the intellect must also be considered. In the same manner men have not given sufficient importance to co-existence and toleration. Therefore, they have killed each other. Ultimately on account of - experience, they came to the conclusion that the law of violence is not good. Therefore they spread the idea of unity and toleration and believed the theory of non-violence, which created unity and collective power.
Shah Latif says:
Several religions taught and trained persons in nonviolence.
Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and Islam adopted non-violence as a creed.
Later on their followers degenerated and adopted animal instincts, became
violent in their creed. History proves that power acquired with physical
force, or intellectual power, moral or spiritual qualifications give power
to its followers. But when they do not remain contended with non-violence,
they, on account of economic competition, break each other's power. The
Arian in the beginning followed the path of violence and conquered their
predecessors, the Dravadian and Aborigine. But after some time they fought
among themselves as Rajput Rajas and weakened their own power. After this
experience they produced reformers who preached non-violence, Mahatma Buddha
and Mahatma Mahavir gave that message to Indians and in the west,
Moses gave Israelis the teaching of violence for their freedom from the
But after experience they discarded that theory and Christ taught morality, love and non-violence. He said:
In the beginning, the Israelis neglected his teachings, because they
thought him against their vested interest and got him crucified. But gradually
non-violence gave much influence to Christians that today there are a greater
number of Christians in the world.
[* footnote in spite of all the corrosiveness and tyrannical methods of the ill-informed mullahs, the latest report is that more than a lacs of people have converted to Christianity in several districts of Punjab. Draconian laws and intellectual guttersnipes are victimizing the people of Sindh including Karachi. Those who talk of democracy and freedom must also do justice to the cruelty treated women in our society ]*
Similarly, among the Arabs of Mecca, Prophet Mohammed was born. He preached unity to the Arabs. But the conservative Arab Shaikhs with their vested interests adopted a hostile attitude towards him and wanted to get him killed. But he remained non-violent and united them on one platform. He adopted violence only in self-defense. But later his followers, taking undue advantage of their unity the name of religion, attacked other countries and established Arab Imperialism. Instead of keeping peace and unity, they used religion for conquering other countries and looting their treasures, and by force brought them under their domination. But this was a wrong method, which created jealousy among them for getting power, and in reaction, they became a target of the jealousy of other nations. Though the Arabs swiftly conquered Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Iran, West Africa, Central Asia and Sindh and established their own Government, yet these conquests made them so weak that the conquered countries later rebelled against them and established their own 'governments. On account of their jealousy, they did not only become weak but were divided and their original principles of love) non-violence, peace and toleration were all forgotten. Instead, the Arabs adopted hatred, violence and interrelation. So, unfortunately, the g' followers of Islam hungering for power and vested interests, forgot the universal message of Islam and converted it into an imperialist type of religion. Under the present circumstances people have been compelled under the doctrine of co-existence to return to the basic principles of the Qura'an.
But on that path the interpretation of Pakistani Islam of Muslims being a separate nation and present day "Communism" have established a great stumbling block.
I have mentioned in short the basic teachings of other religions. I have also mentioned how religion, from the beginning, on account of change of circumstances and other evolution of society., have guided humanity. And how they have learned the lesson from each other. Sindhis have learned lessons from the following religions:
In the first chapter of my book I have written in short that in the long period of history, how foreign imperialist nations invaded, controlled and influenced and, from time to time, people of Sindh, for self-defense, struggled for freedom. In the same manner, the vested interests of religion like other imperialism, tried to keep control over the local people. Ultimately some reformers found out that behind all religions there was unity of purpose. Therefore on the basis of coexistence, they selected good points from every religion and presented them to the people in what is known by the name of Sufism. Though before it or after it, several reformers took. out the essence from all religions and presented to the people to bring unity of thought among them and save them from the exploitation of certain vested interests of religions.
I will point out the following few instances which have worked so as to influence the people:
1) Belief in supernatural power and fear of their harmful influence
and faith in their appeasement on the basis of devotion.
2) Animist things like Sun, Moon, Planets, Zodiacs, Mountains, Air, Water, Fire and Land had also spirits, which influence the people for good or for bad.
3) Behind the idea of plurality of Gods, there came the basis of idol worship.
4) Trinity, Duality and Monism were historical evolutions of supernatural power of religion.
Judaism also had left its influence-on Sindh. During the days of the Babylonians, the Empire came under Iranian influence, and Sindh, for some time, was under the influence of the Persians. Then, after the spread of Islam, the First Islamic teachings, which came, to Sindh was a branch of Judaism.
if you see the traditions and laws of Judaism, you will find that Islam was most influenced by the teachings of Judaism. Christ was the founder of Christianity and reformer of Judaism. His teachings had great influence on Islam. From there Christian missionaries came to Sindh. In view of that, Christ's teachings had great influence over Sindhi saints just as Shah Latif says:
Shaikh Akbar Mohiuddin ibn Arabi, who belonged to Spain, learnt from Plato, new-Platonism and Spenoza from Europe, and Mansur, Rumi, Attar from the East. Their teachings had influenced over Shah Waliullah of Delhi, from whom Makhdoom Moeen of Thatta benefited. Makhdoom was a great friend of Shah Latif. All the religions had several hundred sects, which were the creations of the teachers of those religions. But the vested interests of various religions gave them different meanings, which therefore became the cause of misunderstandings. If we keep all other religions aside and only study the history of the evolution of Islam, it will be found that the Arab's Islamic interpretation was different by which Islam took a different form; and the interpretation in Iran and the European preachers presented Islam in different forms; and so also in Sindh, on account of the variety of religions, which had influenced Sindhi saints and philosophers. Sindh's interpretation became different. Below, I narrate the different interpretations of Arabia, Iran, Europe and Sindh.
ARAB'S INTERPRETATION OF ISLAM:
Their ancient traditions and social customs, old religious beliefs and teachings of their temperaments, climate, racial and tribal influence to every count's people. Arabia, which is at present dominated by Saudis, mostly consisted of desert land and hilly track dwellers. Residents of that country, excepting a few small towns were mostly nomads who passed a wandering life, and camel's milk, dates and certain Glorees, Ghohoon were their food stuffs. They were divided into tribes, fighting each other in petty matters. Their feuds continued for generations. Shiv fire worshippers of Iran, local idol worship influenced them, and influenced by Shiv, Hindus, Jews and Christians also had their influence over them. But ultimately, they reverted back to their old tradition of belief. Arabs were simple 'people and kind hearted. And then God had mercy on them, Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) appeared and preached his ideas to them. Prophet Mohammed's (peace be upon him) teachings consisted of two missions:
If you look at that Islam which was practiced by Arabs, you will find that they were uprooted from Mecca and Madina arid were taken to central administration places like Baghdad in Iraq, Damascus in Syria, Cairo in Egypt. Enmity with the family of Prophet increased so much that none of his descendants could be buried beside him. At present the Arabs are the most backward Muslims in the world, committing of theft, amputation of their hand and for committing the crime of killing they are taken to be killed before the common people, in front of Ka'aba. The majority of Arabs are ignorant of even the basic principles of the Islamic religion. When Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) came, then the Arabs were divided in various families, fighting each other and divided in fighting groups and were drunkards, idol worshippers, omen worshippers, nomads and weak. The Prophet's moral religious and spiritual influence so changed the people that they came on one platform, freed them from bad habits and united them into one Nation. Arabs came, under one administration. Ultimately, they accepted one religion, one Government and got out from poverty and conquered the neighboring countries and brought them under Arab imperialism. But it cannot be denied that most of the countries, which were conquered by them, were more civilized with ancient civilization and their own Empires. They had their own literary material and centers. As explained, with the advent of Islam, Arabs conquered the other countries and confiscated treasures and resources of other countries and became rich. But they committed certain follies, which are as under:
They called the non-Arab countries Ajamis (dumb). In order to prove their superiority over the others in the name of Islam, Arabic language, traditions, and customs were thrust upon them. They tried to convert them from their original religions, change their language and alphabet. They changed their original names and kept Arabic names. With the result that the persons, thus conquered, were compelled to change their names and family names, and they started calling themselves Arab descendants. The looted treasures got from other countries were considered a property handed over to them by God. They brought free persons of those countries under their slavery and sold them to outsiders and used them as their slaves. They forcibly tried to destroy their religions and declared, against the clear order of Qura'an all-previous religions were rejected and were not fit for the world. There was instruction in the Qura'an that "they will use no force in religion". But these persons used force, neglecting the instructions that all had the right to their own religion.
According to the instructions of the Qura'an, all persons were born free and equal. But they made them slave and slave girls and confiscated their property. They brought other nations as a part of their Empire. Islam had preached personal freedom and national freedom, but they brought them under their, domination. Islam forbade fornication, but they used the women of other people without marrying. Arabs conquered those countries, which were more civilized, cultured, progressed and advanced in languages and literature. They possessed great libraries, which were set on fire by the Arabs', and all instruments of music, statues; things of fine art like paintings were destroyed.
The Arabs also rejected everything not within the scope of Qura'an and Hadith, though the Qura'an and Prophet had proclaimed" Go to every corner of the world and learn, even if you have to go as far as China". Every man with eyes has to learn a lesson from the things of the world. Even the knowledge of God was to be acquired through men. All books, knowledge, pictures, statues and languages are the product of Nature and historical experience. There are the pages and signs of creation of the world.
Who were those Arabs who, on account of their own limited and narrow point of view called these natural signs of God, wrong and themselves right. God Himself had declared that Islam was not a separate religion, but had come to reform and improves the old ones. And Islam had come to prove that there was unity behind all diversity, But' Arabs slowly changed Islam in such a way that the Arab nation, Arabic language, Arabic kinds of prayers, Arabic religious beliefs were Islam itself. Therefore they considered every mail non-Arab, a non-Muslim and an innovation. It was considered salvation of the soul to die in Arab countries. Without meaning and understanding, prayers were performed In the Arabic language, in different countries, on the occasions of marriages and deaths, the customs of different countries, which used to be performed before, were removed and in their place Arabic customs were introduced. To be a Muslim, an Arabic dress and Arabic names were considered necessary. Instead of giving preference to spiritual and rational things, like Jews and pundits, they preferred outside prayers and recitation of certain things, to be Islam. God's greatness, moral principles, good deeds were all thrown out. It is said in the Qura'an, that in the matter of religion, force was not necessary. People were to be invited to the right path through preaching, teachings and proper advice. In the case of religion, the principle of coexistence was to be kept in view. But they had their imperialist mentality, and habits of the persons who drank camel's milk and other things by which they were to utilize religion for their imperial purpose. In everything they considered violence necessary, and tried to change people according to Arab made Islam. They, instead of purifying the heart, considered religion as a formal recitation of verses as prayers. "Allah-ho-Akbar, was the slogan of God's greatness. But these Arabs made it a slogan for killing cattle or people. These Arabs turned Islam, which was a religion of peace and unity, into a religion of hatred, rebellion and wars.
They combined religion with politics and used their religion as instrument for their imperial purposes. Islam had come to the world as a blessing and Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) made himself a boon for the universe. But these Arabs turned that religion as a means for their selfish motives. The result was that slowly the conquered countries, in their reaction, turned against Arab imperialism. On the other side even among the Arabs competition arose for getting power. Bani-Abbasis utilized religion for their political purposes, and prolonging Arab Imperialism. The result was that the interpretation of Islam took several forms. Those persons, who believed in the supremacy of Arab imperialism, called themselves Sunnis, and those who were against it called themselves Shias. Arabs at one time were mercenary soldiers in the Government of Iran, but when Arab conquered Iran and established their Government the reaction was that the Iranians turned so much against Arab b domination, that their national poet Firdousi was compelled to say:
These enmities among Sunnis and Shias created so much trouble that one Shia Prime Minister of Abbasi Empire invited Halaku Khan Mongol to Baghdad and destroyed Arab Imperialism.
IRANIAN INTERPRETATION OF RELIGION:
The Persian's had their ancient civilization and citizenship. They were in charge of a great empire. For some time Sindh, Turkistan, Mesopotamia, Syria, Asia Minor and even Egypt remained within their empire. Arabs used to serve as an auxiliary force under them. They have had their prophets who expounded their own religion. Zardusstra, Mathra, Mazdahic and Mani were among them, whose brief introduction ',as been given above. They introduced the world, philosophy of Duality. According to which each thing had two sides, so much so that supernatural power (God) also was divided into two. Aharmaz and Aharman. The power of good and bad. On one side was light and on the other side was darkness, which were said to be the important factors. Right and wrong, spirit and matter were said to be two powers, which discriminated the world forces. They considered the sun as . a symbol of light and therefore believed the sun to be center of all power, and Darkness as a sign of ignorance. Angels and Satan were the product of that concept when Arabic Islam's interpretation of religion was thrust upon Iranian. They discarded the Sunni sect of Islam and adopted the Shia-interpretation of Islam. According to the Shias, Ali was the custodian of Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him), as he had said:
Therefore they gave preference to nationalism. After some time they advanced their language and culture and freed -them from the Arab language and culture. Iranians were descendants of the Arian race and Arabs were Dravadian (simitics). In future the Iranian culture, progressed so much that when the Mongols conquered Iran, then Mongols adopted Iranian culture. Islam was preached by Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) but Arabs, on account of their imperial interests and a militant and savage mentality, changed it to gain materially, but Islam after coming to Iran, due to Manist influence, was presented to the world with the refinement of their previous civilization, so that its influence spread to a great part of Muslim world. Mansur Hilaj and Khwaja Fariduddin Attar, Moulana Rumi, Shams Tabrezi and Hakim Sanai were the founders of the Iranian interpretation of Islam, whose foundation was based on love, and Arabic Islam preached separation, strife and hatred. The above-mentioned reforms, on account of the earlier influence of the Vedic Dharm, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam, established the foundation of Islamic Sufism. in the days of Mughals and Samas, the Iranian intellectuals came to Sindh in large numbers. The great Sufis, Mansur and Sarmad, laid come to Sindh. Shah Inayat, Badil Sain came under the Iranian interpretation of Islam i.e. Sufism. The Persian language was the national language of Sindh. They interpreted morals and Sufism better than the Arab's interpretation.
EUROPEAN INTERPRETATION OF ISLAM:
When Islam's voice came from Arabia, then Europe's greater portion, Asia Minor and Syria, were under the dominance of Roman (Catholic) imperialism. The Muslims conquered greater portion of' the Roman (Christian) Empire. On the west Constantinople, and in the north, Africa, came under the Muslim rule. From that time Islam (under the influence of narrow-minded and prejudiced point of view) came under the influence of Greek philosophy and Christian influence of love, non-violence, Asetic and spiritual teachings. on the one side Iranian Sufism and Christian piety and on the other side Greek philosophy together prepared the ground for a new synthesized interpretation of Islam. its best form was presented by the teachings of ibn-Arabi, he was born from an Arab family in Spain. On him the influence of Plato, new Plutonian thought, Mansur Halaj, Vehdaniat, Rumi and Attar's influence were predominant. Though in Europe for a long time Christian influence was dominant. Yet it could not remain free from the influence of Greek philosophy, and of Islamic Sufism and other influences. After that the European thinker, under the influence of Masnavi of .Moulana Rumi, Haditlis of Hakim Sanai and Mantakultair of Khwaja Fariduddin Attar and sayings -and teachings of Mansur influenced the West. At the time the European Government dominated a greater portion of the world, which presented Iranian Sufism, Greek philosophy and Ibn Arabi's Monism to the thinkers of the civilized world. That was the European interpretation of Islam, which was a wider and matured interpretation. The Muslims from the Roman Catholic Christian, Pope-ism, borrowed the institution of Khilafat. But after the European Renaissance, when European nations found out that the mixture of politics and religion harmed those countries, then the greater portion of Europe discarded it and separated religion from politics, through the reformation of Martin Luther's Protestantism. But Muslims were still following the Khilafat, which even after the sad experience from the Turks, it was found that it was harmful. Then as late as 1920, under the dynamic leadership of Mustafa Kamal (Kamal Ata Turk), they discarded the Khilafat and established the democratic Republic of Turkey. The Muslims learned several lessons from the West, on one hand, the Arabs borrowed the institutions of Khilafat from Christian Popeist on the other hand. The Muslims, in order to save tile Turkish Empire from disintegration, followed the theory of Pan Islamism. On the third side the theory of Nationalism was borrowed from Europe. Thus all this turned the Arabs against the Turkish Khilafat. Now when Arab, and other Muslim countries, saw the influence of nationalism and socialism spreading, then in the name of unity of Muslim nations they have started misguiding the Muslims. The Greek philosophy and European scientific inventions have to a greater extent, broken the beliefs and misguiding interpretation of Arab Islam, and by nationalism they have Oven a new interpretation to Islamic teachings.
SINDH ISLAMIC INTERPRETATION:
Arabs conquered Sindh during the days of Bani Umayya dynasty. The Sindhi people, and their upper class, due to the fear of religious sects and the temptation to please the conquerors, and to some extent due to the influence of Sufism accepted Islam as a religion. In the beginning they were dominated by the foreign conquerors, but slowly they came to know that real Islam was separate to that of the Arabic interpretation of Islam. Therefore they overthrew the rule of the Arabs and started their own independent rule. As I have stated above, the Sindhi people had imbibed the influence of nine religions of the world. Therefore the majority of Sindhis came to the conclusion that Sindhi Interpretation of Islam was better than its Arab interpretation, on the following basis:
5) The Arabs had created a psychology in the name of their Arab national and linguistic superiority. Therefore the learning of Arabic language and Arabic ways of prayers and belonging to Arabic descendants and keeping Arabic names had become fashionable among the tribal upper class. Every outsider was considered superior. The Sindhis, from the days of Arian invasion, had not experienced this kind of narrow attitude and coercive behavior. Therefore they were afraid, that if they did not follow blindly, they would be treated in the same manner as the Dravadian were treated by the Arians.
6) According to the Qur'anic concept, the belief in the various religions, prophets and their books, was necessary for being a true Muslim. But these Arabs openly rejected authority of previous religions and rejected all previous religions and instead Arab traditions, customs and wrongly interpreted beliefs to be real Islam. They treated non-Muslims in such a manner, which was never seen before.
7) The Arabs declared necessary as a part of Islam, to visit the annual fair of Hajj every year. Thus they declared the superiority of their Arab country over the rest of the people. I have said how the Sindhis had learnt rich lessons from various religions, which were: