Shah Latif and His Message - G. M. Syed
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Chapter 6
Analysis of the Ideas of Shah Latif and Dr. Muhammad Iqbal
Just as the poetry of shah Latif is a source of inspiration for the Sindhis, in the same manner Dr. Muhammad Iqbal holds a special interest among that section of the people of Pakistan today who have an understanding and interest in Urdu. Both can easily be considered among the national poets of the world. Shah Latif and Dr. Iqbal are respectively the national poets of Sindhis and Muslims of Pakistan who understand Urdu.

By presenting a few facts about their thoughts and philosophy in this chapter, I would make an effort to being out the contradiction between the two. If the readers take a closer look at the poetry of Shah Latif and Dr. Iqbal, they will discover that their source of inspiration and ideas are quite the same. They had been deeply influenced by the Holy Prophet, the Holy Qur’an and the Mathanvi of Maulana Rome. For the information and knowledge of the reader, some extracts from the poetry of these leading poets are presented below as an evidence.

Shah Latif

One can easily see after the study of the poetry of ‘Shah Latif that he regarded it essential to understand and accept the teachings of the Holy Prophet in order to protect one self from being misguided, and be truly guided by the teachings of the Holy Prophet. He says:

 Only the people, who believe in Allah, accept the prophet hood of the Holy Prophet Muhammad truly and sincerely. Therefore, none among them is misguided.

Exactly in the same manner he considers the Holy Qur’an a rich source of wisdom and the knowledge of Allah, and says if we probe into the meanings of the Holy Qur’an, we shall never have to seek another source for spiritual guidance. In the following verse, he expresses this thought:

 With single-minded devotion recite the name of Allah from the Holy Qur’an. The treasure you seek, you will find here, without knocking at another door.

Besides the Holy Prophet and the Holy Qur’an, when Shah Latif speaks of the comprehension of truth, and elevation of man to position of honor, and being united with Allah, he considers it imperative to refer to Maulana Rome:

All the manifestations in the Universe seek the only God, whose very foundation is His beauty. This is the essence of Maulana Rome’s message. Those who succeed in knowing this secret, never share it with men of all descriptions.
The entire Universe seeks the knowledge of the only God, whose very foundation is His beauty. If we succeed in removing the darkness in our heart, we can have a vision of the on true God.
The whole Universe seeks that eternal truth whose foundation is its beauty. Maulana Rome says, that you can only be united to God when you deny your ego.

Dr. Mohammed Iqbal

As for Shah Latif the source of inspiration for Dr. Iqbal was the Prophet of Arabia, the Holy Qur’an and Maulana Rome. In the following verse, Allama Iqbal expresses his view about the Holy Prophet

You must try to reach the Holy Prophet, because he is the essence of religion and faith. But if you fail to reach him, then everything you have got is nothing more than falsehood.

He says at another place:

If you desire to create a place for yourself in this world, you will have o firmly establish your relation with God, and follow the path shown by the Holy Prophet.

We are enlightened about Dr. Iqbal’s views about the Holy Qur'an in the following verses:

Counseling the reader about his poetry, he says that he should not lose himself in the complicated thought of his poetry, if he is moving on the path of faith. He should transcend his poetry, which is the first step in understanding the Qur'an. Moreover, if he does grasp the meaning of the Holy Qur’an, he will have acquired all the wealth of religion as well as this world. The Qur’an is the heart of this vast universe and the final and absolute stage of knowledge.

Then he expresses himself at another place in the following verse:

Without the comprehension of the Holy Qur’an man is weak, and he is constrained to resort to stratagems. Having a full understanding of the Holy Qur’an man is rich even in his poverty.

The reader can easily assess Dr. Iqbal’s devotion to Maulana Rome through his following verses:

Once again, I acknowledge my indebtedness to Maulana Room for inspiration, who is the treasure house of all the secrets of knowledge. He has converted my simple thought to a profusely rich imagination. He has instilled my spirit with the flame, that fiery particle, which has changed my breath into a flash of fire. I am like the wave who is in search of that brilliant pearl in the vast ocean of his knowledge.

The extracts from the poetry of these national poets make it evident that the main sources of inspiration for their thought and views were the same. Moreover, a further analysis of their poetry leaves no doubt that their object was the same, which was the welfare and progress of humanity. However when the reader will contemplate their message the fact will become quite evident that to achieve this great objective they adopted the course different from each other. After considering the fundamental similarity between these two eminent national poets, I would like to highlight the basic difference or contradiction, which exists between their poetry.

The Ideas of Shah Latif

1. The Unity of Religion

Since Shah Latif believed in the philosophy of Pantheism, he was convinced of the unity as being the source of diversity. He was not prepared to accept diversity as having a separate existence. However, he believed it to be a manifestation of unity. He believed in a faith, which illustrated the idea, that "He is the friend, he is the beloved, he is the enemy and he is the protector. He considered the drum and its sound as one and indivisible:

They are one but in appearance, they are two. He advises to eliminate "dualism" by putting an end to duality of vision.
He says:
He is One, there is neither any one related to him nor is any one equal to him. Unity or oneness is the real truth. Only those who accepted dualism suffered the pangs of anxiety and mis-guidance.

Shah Latif, observed innumerable manifestations of this reality of truth", and had the experience of seeing each separately with the depth of understanding. But a deep contemplation of God who does not manifest Himself elevated him to such a spiritual position, that he could clearly observe the manifestation of the glory of his beloved everywhere and in every object This was, thus, the basis of his conviction that he believed in the fundamental unity of all the religions of the world, and considered creating division between people on the basis of religion contrary to the fundamental principles and doctrines of Islam.

He had read the only lesson, which unites man with Allah, and he never considered anything worthy of attention, which was contrary to this belief. Those who were his opponents, they were at the same time his friends and his protectors. The most fundamental principle of his life was his love of God, whose glory he found reflected in everything he cast his eyes upon. He had transcended far the stages of scepticism and doubt. He called the creators of hatred and division between human beings in the name of religions quacks and charlatans. Referring to people of this character, he says:

Instead of healing, these quacks (spiritually misguided people) have further aggravated the condition of the patient.

2. Sindhi Nationalism

In accordance with the injunctions of the Holy Qur'an, Shah Latif considered the entire human race as one nation. However, for the convenience of identification and from the point of view of making progress by being organized, he did not consider it a sin for a distinct and separate nationality of Sindhis. By accepting the idea of a distinct and separate identity of Sindhis, he never aimed at a division of humanity, but considered it a source of reaching the international and universal brotherhood.

He had traveled through almost the entire Sindh province and had observed it closely. The people were living in a state of total helplessness. As Shah Latif looked around he observed other nations marching on the road to progress, but the Sindhis were living a life of stagnation and indolence. They were like an orphan who had no guardian. No one cared about the neighbors, that they were passing their day and night in unmitigated misery. It was due to this lamentable state of affairs that, he spurred the people in their idea of a united Sindh or a Sindhi nationality with the purpose that people may share each other’s pain and suffering, and to develop in themselves an aspiration to contemplate the affliction and troubles of the country and steer it safely to a situation of security and safety. In this struggle, he was so deeply absorbed that he became completely oblivious to the apparent difference between religions. He espoused the cause of uniting the miserable humanity in Sindh, and addressed those living in comfort and happiness in the following manner:

They are shedding only crocodile tears. Those who share the grief and suffering of others can easily be recognized.

Shah Latif was determined in his principle that he would liberate the Marvi of Sindh from the foreign exploitation and slavery of Umer Kot and achieves an atmosphere of freedom. He always considered himself one of the Sindhi people, and expressed his sentiment in the following manner:

Whatever their defects or merits, I am always prepared to embrace my people.

He considered a collective consciousness and united struggle imperative for freedom from slavery and troubles. He said:

 Come, all who are mournful, dejected and the oppressed, let us meditate over our condition.

Then he expressed his feelings about those who were inclined toward the aliens because they had made great progress and made them develop an inferiority complex, and were contemptuous toward their backward countrymen:

Love your countrymen, because you can not expect any good from the aliens.

In the opinion of Shah Latif, only those people have chosen this destination for themselves who are mentally divided.

3. Patriotism

The entire philosophy of Shah Latif is based upon the idea of a homeland and for him love of the country is an integral part of his faith. Through his personal experience and the knowledge of history, he had come to realize the truth that the building and formation of a nation on the basis of beliefs (Religions) does not correspond to the requirements of the time and mental standard of the people. Such ideas had no significance more than building castles in the air, and he knew that the people who promulgate such ideas and raise such slogans have no correspondence between what they desire and what they say. So, at one place addressing such people he says:

You, who are false and insincere in your heart but in appearance you speak with a smile on you lips, you must get rid of this hypocrisy.

Praying for the fertility of his homeland and the prosperity of the people, he says:

Oh God, bless my homeland with rain, so that my people become prosperous.

The love he bore for his countryman can be assessed by his verses given below:

His eyes were filled with tears when he thought of his homeland.
I have been inspired with a new -life when I have reached the door of my beloved.
Of whatever nature my people may be I accept them all.
At every place in the desert are the abodes and destinations of my people.
At one place, he gives utterance to his sentiments of love for his omeland and his people in the words of Marvi in the following manner:
Addressing King oomro she says it is not possible to forget her people and remove their remembrance from her heart. How difficult it is not to remember them, because she feels a deep love and affection for them. Her heart is pierced through because she has not seen them for a long time. It is long since she saw her dear ones and hut-dwellers.
It is only by hance that these swans have flown in this direction, their eal home in fact is the high mountains.
Marvi appeals to her companions to pray for her, that she might be able to go back to her homeland Malir.
Now I would not like to hear anything, or listen to no one, because now I have to go back to my home, Malir.

It had always been the concern of Shah Latif to see Sindh fertile, luxuriant and prosperous. He remembered the Sindhi people in his poetry by the names of Warehja, Watan Javal, Panuhara, Maro and Abana etc., and prayed for their freedom and progress. He was fully aware of the power and capabilities of the ruling class and the aliens and at the same, he knew about the weaknesses and privations of his people. So, not finding the conditions prevailing encouraging, he had attached all his hopes to natural incidents, the changes on the international level and revolutions. He had always been firm in his belief that revolution would come and there would be an upheaval in society. The new movements would completely wipe out lassitude from their hearts, and the people living under oppression since centuries would be inspired with a new spirit Those who have been deprived would get what is their by right, and the tyrants and the exploiters would be exiled. The really patriotic Sindhis would sow the seed of genuine freedom through their courage and determination, and would reap the fruits of joy, comfort, peace and security.

4. SeparatIon of Religion from Politics

In the light of history Shah Latif had seen the harm, which can been done by allowing religion and politics to go together. He was thoroughly aware of the fact that neither the majority of Muslims have a correct conception of Islam, nor the rulers have the quality of true cognizance of God nor the spirit to serve the people. Instead of running the affairs of the state and the government in conformity with Islamic system, it was being ‘i~ d to serve the personal and class interests of the rulers. The people had become extinct who were sincere in maintaining the affairs of the state under the influence of religion, and at the same time had the ability to achieve this aim. Expressing his despair to remember such people, he says:

Those diamond cutters have gone who gave shape to all kinds of precious stones. The generations succeeding them do not even have the knowledge of the value of glass. Their only occupation today is to beat the metals of insignificant value.

He could very well see that the ruling class was using religion and Shariah (religious law) as an instrument to cover up their evils and to maintain and consolidate their power, and he could see that the religious priests (Maulvis and Mullahs) who had found favor in the court offered interpretations of Islam and its tenets at the behest of their masters, which was simply intended to serve their purpose. He expresses his opinion about such people in the following verse:

The shortsighted people were pleased with superficiality without looking into the depth of faith. They allowed religion to lose its value in their greed for material gain. They have lost all their share in the next world.

Shah Latif was aware of the fact that personal nd class interests always conflicted with the interest of the people, and whenever the affluent and the ruling class raised the slogan of religion, they did so without any sincerity in their hearts. This is the stratagem they normally use to deceive the common man. Therefore, he expresses his opinion about such people in the following verse:

Selfishness and the fear of God cannot co-exist in the same heart, because evil and good cannot go together.

5. Nonaggression

Shah Latif never encouraged the people to take up arms except for resistance against aggression or liberating the nation from slavery. Under any guise he was firmly opposed to oppression and aggression, and always condemned those who possessed belligerent mentality... The following verse is adequately reflective of his thoughts on this subject:

If someone uses abusive language against you, be patient and do not answer by retaliating, because one who resorts to aggression has to face humiliation at the end.

However, this view of Shah Latif does not mean that he was convinced of the policy of non-violence, or he was giving a lesson of cowardliness or discouraged people from making sacrifices while putting-up resistance against the enemy or for their freedom. The following verse of Shah Latif will easily serve to eliminate any such impression:

It is an attribute of the valiant to attack in war, to challenge the enemy and to defend their companions. They consider it a sport when the armor of steel clashes in a military conflict, and do not fear to kill or to be killed.

About the courageous and the brave who wage a war for a true cause and who are prepared to lay down their lives in the defense of freedom, he says at one place:

They have arrayed themselves on the battlefield. Their arrows and swords are being polished in preparation for the conflict. The victorious are carrying their spears, raised high above their heads. They are eager to embrace martyrdom, and prepared to lay down their lives.

Instead of being overawed by the strength, armies and military superiority of the enemy in the battlefield, he praises the spirit of sacrifice of those who fight for truth, and condemns the cowards and deserters. These are his feelings about such people:

You, deserters from the battlefield, you have shamed and humiliated me by your cowardice. Look at the brave and the valiant, who fought bravely in the battlefield and have embraced martyrdom. How proudly their women bewail their loss.

The Ideas Of Dr. Iqbal

1. Deism

Contrary to the view held by Shah Latif, Dr. Iqbal considered the philosophy of Pantheism as an obstacle in the progress of the nations. In his opinion the supremacy of man’s existence did not consist in his elimination of self and being absorbed in the supreme Being, but the culmination of human existence, consists in that man should develop in himself the capacity to elevate the self to such a level that he could absorb the Omnipotent in himself. He says that:

Man should elevate his ego to such a position that consideration of destiny is totally eliminated, so that God himself asks man to say what he desires.

Dr. Iqbal sharply criticized the celebrated European philosopher Hegel simply because he believed in the philosophy of Pantheism:

What does the bird of wisdom know, what flying into skies signify. How the hen can be ecstatic without her rooster.

Like Hegel, Dr. Iqbal remembered the great philosopher Plato by the name of "the old man," and "one of the group of ancient goats because of his difference from the idea that the world is transient. In the opinion of Dr. Iqbal such philosophical views, instead of inspiring the nations with a new life, only serves to put them to a sleep of death.

Shah Latif is the torchbearer of the thought of elf-abnegation and being absorbed in the supreme. Being:

It is only through self-denial and allowing one’s self to be absorbed in the supreme Being that a mere slave is united with God.

However, Dr. Iqbal oes not accept this idea of Shah Latif, and sees contained everything in the human ego, which be has preached through his poetry. He says:

 he existence of life is reflected through various manifestations of the ego and everything visible is the secret of ego. It is the characteristic of ego to project itself, because every particle is infused with its power.
When a small, insignificant drop is informed with ego, a valueless existence is metamorphosed into an invaluable pearl. On the contrary, when a mountain moves away from its foundation, it turns itself into a desert, which complains to the ocean about the loss of its identity.

Dr. Iqbal was a staunch advocate of human individuality, and felt the need of guidance by a ‘perfect man’ for the progress and reformation of the human race. It was his firm belief that Muslims being the followers of Islam (the faith strictly in conformity with nature) are suited to provide guidance to man. In his view, the Muslims are the guardians of this faith of nature and a source of united action, and salvation of humanity from its existing adversities and troubles is possible only through the Muslims. Here he expresses his views in the following verses:

If Iran is wiped off the map it will not affect your existence, as intoxication from the wine has nothing to do with the cup. The nations of the world have yet to know your importance, because the affairs of the world need your leadership. You have to accomplish many things, and you have yet to consummate the dissemination of the idea of oneness of God in the world. (Bange Dara)

2. The Separate Nationality of Muslims

In accordance with the views mentioned above, Dr. Iqbal considers all the Muslims a separate and distinct nation on the basis of religion. In his view the idea of nationality based on the country, race or color is antiquated. There is a clear evidence of this idea of Dr. Iqbal in the following verses. (From Ramooz-e-Bekhudi-the secrets of the self abnegation):

The survival of the Muslims is not indebted to territorial considerations and their being the inhabitants of India, Rome or Syria has no significance. Their ancestral homeland is no other than Islam. The destiny of other nations is dependent upon a homeland and the dynastic rule there. On the contrary, the foundation of the Muslims is unique since it is inherent to our hearts. Our aims, our end, our living and our thinking are common. Teachings of the Holy Prophet have united the entire Muslim nation into one brotherhood and we have attained a unique harmony of language, feelings and life.

About those nations of the world whose existence is based on nationalism, Iqbal has this to say:

Do not look for dependence of Muslims toward the West, because they possess unique character of their own. The secret of their strength lies in their countries and their dynastic rule, where as your strength emanates from religion, and if you dissever your relation with religion, forthwith you lose your strength, and with the loss of strength, the nation can not survive. The nation’s survival depends upon religion. Your life, joy and prosperity are dependent upon your mutual love.

3. Opposition of Nationalism

Basing the foundation of nationalism on religion, Dr. Iqbal considers the concept of patriotism equivalent to idolatry and regards as poison for religion. He also considers the concept of nationalism the root cause of mutual disputes and quarrels between the nations, and considers this concept responsible for the tendency among some nations to occupy other countries to serve their trade interests. He is firmly opposed to the idea of dividing humanity into the confines territory and countries, and counsels Muslims to never consider themselves attached to one particular country, and considers the entire world as their homeland.

The following verses of Dr. Iqbal illustrate his concept of nationalism:

The homeland holds greatest significance among the gods, which man has created in the present age, but what should be fully realized that its garment has become the coffin of the nation. This in fact is the cause of mutual rivalries between nations of the world, it has become the foundation of the conquest of nations, and to serve business interests. For a nation to confine itself within the bounds of a territory can only spell disaster for the nation.

The poet counsels the Muslim nation that the entire world is its homeland, exactly is the fish can range the entire expanse of the ocean as its own territory:

Do not mark your national territory with Ravi, Nile and Euphrates, which confines it within a physical boundary. Your ship is made to range the unmarked boundaries of the vast oceans.
Our spirit is not confined to one particular place, in the same manner as the cup of wine is confined to one place.
If you are indeed a Muslim do not confine yourself to the ideological concepts and don’t let yourself be lost in futile disputes.
Migration from one’s homeland is a well-known tradition of the Holy Prophet. If you follow this tradition, you would be giving testimony to the Prophet-hood of Muhammad.

Dr. Iqbal expresses his views in the following verses about those nations of the world whose foundation is the concept of nationalism.

  The nations who have based the concept of a nation on a homeland, they have led the world to dissever the relations of brotherhood. When they created the concept of nationalism as of pre-eminent importance, It has divided humanity into belligerent tribes. The natural consequence of the practice of this concept is that humanity has completely been eliminated and men have become strangers to one another. The fact is that the spirit has flown away from the body: the humanity has been wiped out and only nations are left.

4. Amalgamation of Religion and Politics

Dr. Iqbal never supported the idea of keeping religion and politics apart. Considering Islam pre-eminently capable as religion of administration and discipline, he considered its guidance essential in every problem of life. It was through Islam, as an administrative force, he wanted to establish justice and equity in order to bring about peace and security in the world.

He does not like the political systems of today in which politics and religion are kept apart. He firmly believes, that politics after being separated from religion has lost its real spirit and the formal treaties, pacts, laws and regulations have completely lost their effectiveness:

In my opinion politics devoid of religion is the slave of Satan, mean in character and without conscience. The European politics after being liberated from the Church is like an unchained monster. When the European rulers are tempted to take control of what belongs to others, the church is always in the forefront.

Then he expresses his opinion about this theme in the following verse:

When politics is divorced from religion, the politicians and their henchmen have nothing but greed and the desire of aggrandizement.

He reminds the Muslims of today of their glorious past when the commander of the Muslim forces also performed the duty of leading the Muslims in prayer. He used to carry the sword in his hand and the Holy Qur’an around his neck. It was his responsibility to provide guidance for the Muslims in religious as well as secular affairs. It is in this manner that Dr. Iqbal counseled Muslims to lead and guide the world. Reminding the present generation of Muslims, he gives them an advice in the following verse.

You must once again learn the lesson of truth, justice, and courage, the characteristic of the Muslims of the glorious age of Muslim History. These qualities are essential of you want to lead the world.

5. Aggressive mentality.

Considering that Muslims possess all those characteristics, which qualify them eminently to lead the world, he desires the domination of Islam and the establishment of the caliphate of the entire Islamic world. He counsels the Muslims to launch a Holy war with the purpose of making the whole world the world of Islam, and keeps them reminding that they have attained the age of youth growing in the shadow, of the sword, and their national symbol is the crescent which symbolizes a curved sword. Arousing this spirit among the Muslims, he expresses himself in the following verses:

 The history of Islam amply reveals the fact that Muslims have the responsibility to lead the world of Asia.
Your dwelling is not the palace of the kings, but being the eagle, which soars in the sky, your home is the height of the mountains.
  This was the sword, which elevated the achievement of Moses beyond human planning, and it was the voice of this very sword, which helped Hazrat Ali to remove the gate of Khyber.
Addressing the Muslim young man, he says. Have you ever considered how powerful and a sharp sword you are.
 Let me tell you the history of the nations, which reached a position of great power. They held the sword and the spear before they turned to the pleasures of music.

After a brief discussion of the conflicting views of Shah Latif and Dr. Iqbal, it becomes quite evident, that each from his point of view, desired the progress and welfare of the human race, and desired to awaken the nation with the purpose of stimulating them into action. Although through the message they have given in their poetry each has followed a different course, yet despite their conflicting views there are quite a number of ideas in which they hold a unanimous opinion. Following are some examples.

1. Advice about love.

In the opinion of both, love is the remedy of every national malady. They firmly believed in the principle that human existence without love is lifeless. Unless a nation entirely goes through an experience of love, it is not capable of making any great achievement. Shah Latif expresses his views in the following verse.

 The river forges its course from its very source. The people of weak determination and entertaining false beliefs seek other paths. The people who are completely immersed in the love of their beloved are not concerned about the course they have to follow. Those who are overwhelmed with the sentiment of love, any path are good for them.
Do not seek other sources, and completely rely upon your own capabilities. Thus losing yourself in the love of your beloved, never cease marching toward your goal.
Trying to view the beauty of the beloved does not signify true love. The prominent expression of love is the one when one is prepared lay down one’s life in the premises of the beloved. If some one is frivolous about the sentiment of love, his sentiment is totally devoid of sincerity.
Dr. Iqbal says:
The empires, rejection of the material world and religion are some of the miracles of love. The rulers of the world and the affluent are most ordinary slaves of love. The habitation and its tenants, the time and place, and the faith, all are various manifestations of love. War and peace in this world are sources of the projection of love. Love is both water of life, as well as the bright and cutting sword.
When love teaches the knowledge about the self, even to the slaves are revealed the mysteries of the art of ruling the world.

2. The Spirit of Sacrifice

Both the poets are unanimous that no nation can achieve independence and progress without facing the dangers courageously and showing patience and perseverance in the face of suffering and persecution. Expressing his view Shah Latif says in the following verse:

Love and the cross bear the same significance. It is an essential condition of love that one sacrifices everything in the path of love. Its primary condition is to be always prepared to lay down one’s life.
First, be prepare to touch your throat with the knife before you question about the tradition of love. Let your body be that musical instrument, which place the sad tune of your beloved. If you have at all expressed your sentiment about your love be prepared to have your body grilled on fire.

Dr. Iqbal expresses his idea about the theme in the following lines.

Do not gather the assemblage of pleasure on the sands of the sea, because this search for pleasure will weaken your resolve. Come; step into the sea, because it beckons you to struggle against the waves. You can only be immortal when you find yourself in the battlefield.

3. Self-knowledge

Shah Latif and Allama Iqbal, both were deeply influenced by this Qura'nic Verse, which means that whoever develops the knowledge of self only he can developed the understanding of God and Shah Latif counseled the nation to develop the capability of self-knowledge:

When I reached the truth after the having lost my identity in the self, the biggest obstacle in my way had lost its significance, nor was I left with any consciousness of the excesses committed against me by the strangers or my own people. In fact, I have assumed the persons of Punnu (the beloved). My suffering lasted as long as long as Sassi (my original self).
Your beloved is in your arms, then why send a messenger for him.
The one I was resides for, is my own self. Thus, I have been able to find my beloved.
The one I was restless for, is my own self. Thus I have been able to find my beloved.

Dr. Iqbal offers his advice to know one self in the following verse:

You have gathered the knowledge of the whole world, but alas you have failed to know yourself. Fool! how long will you remain unaware of your own predicament.
The one, who had set about to explore the course of the stars, he could not explore the domain of his own thoughts. He was so deeply involved in the labyrinth of his own wisdom, he failed to see the dawn of his own dark night The one who succeeded in capturing the rays of the sun, failed to comprehend in what his profit and his loss lay.

Besides the aforementioned points in which we observe unanimity of views between the two poets, there are quite a number of aspects of their teachings, which conflict with each other. For instance, the teachings of Shah Latif advocate the development of the tendency toward equality, tolerance and democracy, while on the other hand Dr. Iqbal, in his poetry, arouses the spirit of dictatorship, fascism and national superiority.

Shah Latif desired to bring about the progress and development of the Sindhis without discrimination of religion and nationality, before the nations of the world, while, on the other hand Dr. Iqbal dreamed of the Muslims as one strong nation to lead the nations of the world through the virtues of courage and justice. As Hitler considered it the prerogative of the German nation to assume the leadership of other nations on the basis of numerical superiority, in the same manner Dr. Iqbal desired to assign to the Muslims the leadership of the entire world on the basis religious superiority.

God does not discriminate between castes and tribes, because he accepts humanity as His creation.
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